Research Publications https://lop.parl.ca/About/Library/VirtualLibrary/research-for-parliament-e.html The Parliamentary Information and Research Service prepares publications for general distribution to all Parliamentarians as background material to policy areas and legislation before Parliament. en-ca COPYRIGHT Sat, 23 Sep 2017 05:28:36 EST Sat, 23 Sep 2017 05:28:36 EST Research Publications Library of Parliament 1 Research Publications https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/images/loplogo-e.jpg https://lop.parl.ca/About/Library/VirtualLibrary/research-for-parliament-e.html 164 80 Aboriginal Languages in the Forging of a Covenant of Reconciliation (New) https://hillnotes.wordpress.com/2017/02/08/aboriginal-languages-in-the-forging-of-a-covenant-of-reconciliation/ In its final report tabled in 2015, the Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada (TRC) notes that the suppression of Aboriginal languages was a core element of the assimilationist policies in effect in residential schools in the 19th and 20th centuries… Aboriginal affairs 936 Wed, 8 Feb 2017 00:00:00 EST Aboriginal Representation on Juries and the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms (New) https://hillnotes.wordpress.com/2015/07/15/aboriginal-representation-on-juries-and-the-canadian-charter-of-rights-and-freedoms/ On 21 May 2015, the Supreme Court of Canada released its decision in R. v. Kokopenace, which examined the constitutionally protected right of an Aboriginal accused person to be tried by a representative jury. Aboriginal affairs 833 Wed, 15 Jul 2015 00:00:00 EST Emergency Management on First Nations Reserves (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2015-58-e.html In Canada, emergencies such as forest fires, floods, and earthquakes occur every year. When such events happen, effective emergency management is essential to ensure the health and safety of Canadians and the full recovery of their communities. For some First Nations communities living on reserves, managing and recovering from emergencies is made particularly challenging by socio-economic conditions, geographic location, and the frequency with which these events occur. Aboriginal affairs 810 Mon, 9 Nov 2015 00:00:00 EST Indigenous Peoples: Terminology and Identity (New) https://hillnotes.wordpress.com/2015/12/14/indigenous-peoples-terminology-and-identity/ For centuries, the original inhabitants of North America have been largely defined by others, beginning with the misapplication of the term Indian by Christopher Columbus to describe the various peoples of the Americas. Today, as attitudes toward the first peoples of Canada change and evolve, so too do the terms used to describe this segment of the population. Knowing which terms to use, the legal distinctions between them, and to whom they apply can often be challenging. Aboriginal affairs 832 Mon, 14 Dec 2015 00:00:00 EST Reforming the Indian Act (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2013-01-e.htm Hillnote 2013-01-E Aboriginal affairs 621 Wed, 30 Jan 2013 00:00:00 EST Resource Revenue–Sharing Arrangements with Aboriginal People (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2014-10-e.htm The federal government forecasts that, in the coming decade, investments of more than $650 billion will be made in natural resource projects, a majority of which will occur on or near Aboriginal traditional lands. Whether these projects proceed, and under what conditions, increasingly depends on the level and quality of Aboriginal participation. Aboriginal affairs 720 Wed, 26 Feb 2014 00:00:00 EST Spending and Jurisdiction for First Nations, Métis and Inuit Peoples (New) https://hillnotes.wordpress.com/2016/01/26/spending-and-jurisdiction-for-first-nations-metis-and-inuit-peoples/ Section 35 (2) of the Constitution Act, 1982 defines the Aboriginal peoples of Canada as including Indian (also referred to as First Nations), Inuit and Métis. Despite this broad constitutional definition, the federal government's current policy is that its responsibility – with a few exceptions – extends only to Indian people resident on-reserve, while provincial governments have a general responsibility for Aboriginal peoples living off-reserve. To date, neither the federal government nor the provincial governments have accepted any special responsibility for Métis and non-status Indians, though recent court decisions are beginning to clarify this longstanding jurisdictional ambiguity. Aboriginal affairs 829 Tue, 26 Jan 2016 00:00:00 EST Supporting Aboriginal Participation in Resource Development: The Role of Impact and Benefit Agreements (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2015-29-e.html?cat=aboriginal Impact and benefit agreements (IBAs) have emerged as one mechanism to encourage Aboriginal participation in resource development projects. This paper briefly provides an overview of IBAs in Canada, describing their content and legal, regulatory and policy framework, and selected issues affecting the negotiation and implementation of IBAs. Aboriginal affairs 834 Tue, 5 May 2015 00:00:00 EST The United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples – Moving Forward (New) https://hillnotes.wordpress.com/2016/05/25/the-united-nations-declaration-on-the-rights-of-indigenous-peoples-moving-forward/ Following 25 years of negotiations, in a landmark vote of the United Nations General Assembly on 13 September 2007, 143 countries voted to adopt the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples. Aboriginal affairs 904 Wed, 25 May 2016 00:00:00 EST Update — National Aboriginal Day: Celebrating Indigenous Cultures, Heritage and Achievements (New) https://hillnotes.ca/2017/06/21/update-national-aboriginal-day-celebrating-indigenous-cultures-heritage-and-achievements/ On June 21, hundreds of communities across Canada will hold numerous events for National Aboriginal Day to celebrate Indigenous cultures and contributions to Canada. These events will include workshops, traditional games, pow-wows, cultural celebrations, concerts and wreath-laying ceremonies. Aboriginal affairs 948 Wed, 21 Jun 2017 00:00:00 EST Update – National Aboriginal Day: Celebrating the Cultures, Heritage and Achievements of Indigenous Peoples (New) https://hillnotes.wordpress.com/2016/06/21/update-national-aboriginal-day-celebrating-the-cultures-heritage-and-achievements-of-indigenous-peoples/ June 21, 2016 marks the 20th anniversary of National Aboriginal Day. On this day each year, hundreds of communities across Canada will hold numerous events to celebrate Indigenous cultures and contributions to Canada. Aboriginal affairs 909 Tue, 21 Jun 2016 00:00:00 EST Agricultural Support in Developed and Emerging Countries (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2011-79-e.htm 2011-79-E Agriculture, environment and natural resources 601 Fri, 23 Dec 2011 00:00:00 EST Aquaculture in Canada (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2013-12-e.htm 2013-12-E Agriculture, environment and natural resources 644 Thu, 28 Feb 2013 00:00:00 EST Assessing Canada's Environmental Performance (New) https://hillnotes.wordpress.com/2016/02/02/assessing-canadas-environmental-performance/ The health of Canadians and their social and economic well-being are highly dependent on the quality of their environment. One way to assess environmental quality is to use indicators that convey complex information as easily understood measures. Agriculture, environment and natural resources 837 Tue, 2 Feb 2016 00:00:00 EST Bulk Water Removals: Canadian Legislation (Modified) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2002-13-e.htm?cat=business For decades, Canadians have been raising concerns about the possibility of fresh water being removed from Canadian lakes and waterways in bulk, including for export to the United States and beyond. The federal government has consistently opposed bulk removal of Canadian water, but it does not have exclusive jurisdiction over water issues in Canada; substantial jurisdiction resides with the provinces. Agriculture, environment and natural resources 771 Fri, 18 Jul 2014 00:00:00 EST Canada's Changing Federal Environmental Assessment Process (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2012-36-e.htm Background Paper No. 2012-36-E Agriculture, environment and natural resources 596 Fri, 5 Oct 2012 00:00:00 EST Canada's Supply Management System (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2015-138-e.html?cat=agriculture In Canada, supply management is a way for farmers – and more specifically, those who produce milk, chickens and eggs – to control, through a marketing system, the supply or quantity of their commercial products. In order to market their products, producers must hold a permit, commonly known as “quota,” without which they would not be able to sell their products to a processing plant. Agriculture, environment and natural resources 820 Thu, 17 Dec 2015 00:00:00 EST Climate Change Negotiations: The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in Context (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2014-03-e.htm The key to reducing the risks of climate change is to reduce global emissions of greenhouse gases, in addition to preparing to adapt. Reducing emissions requires the cohesive action of the international community, particularly those countries responsible for most of the emissions. The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (Convention) is the guiding agreement that governs most multilateral negotiations to address the threat of climate change. However, while many commitments to reduce emissions have been made under the Convention, emissions continue to rise, causing greenhouse gases to accumulate in the atmosphere. Agriculture, environment and natural resources 733 Tue, 7 Jan 2014 00:00:00 EST Climate Change: Implications for Canadian Marine Fisheries and Aquaculture (New) https://hillnotes.wordpress.com/2016/06/08/climate-change-implications-for-canadian-marine-fisheries-and-aquaculture/ Climate change is increasingly challenging the sustainability of Canada's $3.5-billion marine fisheries and aquaculture, two industries of particular economic and social importance to communities on all three coasts Agriculture, environment and natural resources 907 Wed, 8 Jun 2016 00:00:00 EST Envisioning a Sustainable and Dignified World (New) https://hillnotes.wordpress.com/2016/04/14/envisioning-a-sustainable-and-dignified-world/ On 25 September 2015, the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development was adopted at a special summit of the United Nations (UN). It expresses the shared commitment of all member states to take the actions necessary to end poverty, overcome inequality, promote human dignity and protect the natural environment. Agriculture, environment and natural resources 894 Thu, 14 Apr 2016 00:00:00 EST Federal and Provincial Jurisdiction to Regulate Environmental Issues (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2013-86-e.htm This paper provides an introductory explanation regarding the constitutional basis for jurisdiction to regulate a subject matter, and then explains which level of government is responsible for regulating various environmental issues. Agriculture, environment and natural resources 687 Tue, 24 Sep 2013 00:00:00 EST Is the Trans-Pacific Partnership Balanced for Canada's Agricultural and Agri-Food Industry? (New) https://hillnotes.wordpress.com/2016/02/19/is-the-trans-pacific-partnership-balanced-for-canadas-agricultural-and-agri-food-industry/ On 5 November 2015, the Government of New Zealand released the text of the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP). The TPP brings together 12 countries, including Canada; in 2013 they accounted for over 35% of the world's gross domestic product. In 2014, Canada exported 65% of its agri-food production to these countries. Agriculture, environment and natural resources 836 Fri, 19 Feb 2016 00:00:00 EST Low-Level Presence of Genetically Modified Crops in Imports: Proposed Domestic Policy (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2013-79-e.htm Since genetically modified (GM) crops were first commercialized in the 1990s, their number has steadily increased. However, adoption of these crops and the policies applied to them can vary from one country to another, which could disrupt international trade. Agriculture, environment and natural resources 686 Wed, 28 Aug 2013 00:00:00 EST Market (dis)Connection in Canada's Oil and Natural Gas Sectors (New) https://hillnotes.wordpress.com/2016/03/03/market-disconnection-in-canadas-oil-and-natural-gas-sectors/ To be profitable, energy resources must be transported economically under favourable market conditions. Recent shifts in the trade dynamics of Canada's oil and gas sectors shed light on the critical link between transportation infrastructure and market access. Agriculture, environment and natural resources 835 Thu, 3 Mar 2016 00:00:00 EST National Mining Week 2013: An Overview of Canada's Mining Industry (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2013-23-e.htm National Mining Week begins this year on May 13, and its theme is "Our Mineral Resource Advantage: Working for Canadians." Agriculture, environment and natural resources 635 Wed, 8 May 2013 00:00:00 EST Oil Pipelines: A Synopsis of Recent Library of Parliament Studies (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2012-90-e.htm Hillnote 2012-90-E Agriculture, environment and natural resources 616 Wed, 12 Dec 2012 00:00:00 EST Resource Development in Canada: A Case Study on the Ring of Fire (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2014-17-e.htm With a known mineral potential of approximately $60 billion and the first commercial quantities of chromite discovered in North America, the Ring of Fire area in Northern Ontario has garnered much attention in recent years. Federal and provincial ministers have described the Ring of Fire as a multi-generational economic opportunity, with the potential for creating long-term job growth in the region. A recent report suggests that developing the area could contribute at least $5.1 billion to Ontario's Gross Domestic Product (GDP) over the next 10 years. Agriculture, environment and natural resources 749 Mon, 31 Mar 2014 00:00:00 EST Shale Gas in Canada: Environmental Risks and Regulation (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2015-18-e.html?cat=agriculture The recent increase in the development of shale gas in North America has raised significant public concerns about associated environmental risks. After providing some background information about shale gas and its extraction, this paper offers an overview of some of the environmental impacts of shale gas development, and explains how Canada's current regulatory regime, most of which is provincial, addresses these impacts. Agriculture, environment and natural resources 797 Thu, 26 Feb 2015 00:00:00 EST Shale Gas in Canada: Resource Potential, Current Production and Economic Implications (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2014-08-e.htm Shale formations are present in every region of the world, with China, Argentina, Algeria, the U.S. and Canada being the top five countries with technically recoverable shale gas reserves. For Canada, a rise in shale gas production at home and abroad could mean unprecedented economic opportunities and future prosperity, but it could also mean increased competition in the global energy market, a loss of export revenue, and new environmental and social challenges. This paper examines Canada's shale gas resource potential, its current production and the economic implications for Canadian gas producers and consumers. Agriculture, environment and natural resources 737 Thu, 30 Jan 2014 00:00:00 EST The Arctic: Environmental Issues (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2008-04-e.htm 2008-04-E Agriculture, environment and natural resources 605 Thu, 26 Jul 2012 00:00:00 EST The Economics of North American The Economics of North American Pipeline Projects: The Race to the Sea (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2012-27-e.htm 2012-27-E Agriculture, environment and natural resources 612 Mon, 23 Apr 2012 00:00:00 EST The Paris 2015 UN Climate Change Conference (New) https://hillnotes.wordpress.com/2015/11/30/the-paris-2015-un-climate-change-conference/ Despite over 20 years of annual UN climate change conferences, global greenhouse gas emissions continue to rise. Many hope that this year's Conference of the Parties, known as COP 21, to be held in Paris from 30 November to 11 December 2015, will be different. Canada, along with virtually every other country in the world will try to reach a legally binding and universal agreement that will finally put the world on a realistic path to avoid dangerous climate change. Agriculture, environment and natural resources 838 Mon, 30 Nov 2015 00:00:00 EST Trade Agreements and Eastern Canada's Fisheries (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2014-05-e.htm?cat=agriculture Trade agreements with major fishery products importer nations have the potential to increase the competitiveness of fishery products from eastern Canada by eliminating or reducing duties. However, these agreements can also contain services and investment rights that may have implications for fisheries management in this region. Agriculture, environment and natural resources 759 Wed, 19 Feb 2014 00:00:00 EST Update – Climate Change: Implications for Canadian Marine Fisheries and Aquaculture (New) https://hillnotes.ca/2017/06/08/update-climate-change-implications-for-canadian-marine-fisheries-and-aquaculture/ Climate change is increasingly challenging the sustainability of Canada's $4.2-billion marine fisheries and aquaculture, two industries of particular economic and social importance to communities on all three coasts. Agriculture, environment and natural resources 947 Thu, 8 Jun 2017 00:00:00 EST Canada's National Museums (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2013-06-e.htm 2013-06-E Arts, culture and entertainment 637 Wed, 6 Feb 2013 00:00:00 EST Federal Government Policy on Arts and Culture (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2008-41-e.htm?cat=arts This paper examines the history of federal arts and culture policy, analyzes current priorities and recent statistics, and discusses challenges facing policy makers. Arts, culture and entertainment 865 Thu, 31 Jan 2013 00:00:00 EST Heritage Conservation: Canada's National Historic Sites (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2013-27-e.htm?cat=arts This paper gives an overview of the designation process and of the administration of Canada's national historic sites. It then gives a brief description of the condition of these sites during the past few years. It goes on to discuss the recent federal public service strategic review, in particular the budget cuts in the 2012 Budget that affected Parks Canada, and the impact of these cuts on the federal government's ability to fulfill its mandate to administer and preserve national historic sites. Arts, culture and entertainment 864 Tue, 18 Feb 2014 00:00:00 EST Sport Canada and the Public Policy Framework for Participation and Excellence in Sport (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2013-75-e.htm 2013-75-E Arts, culture and entertainment 671 Thu, 25 Jul 2013 00:00:00 EST 21st Century Trade Agreements: From NAFTA to the TPP (New) https://hillnotes.wordpress.com/2016/02/01/21st-century-trade-agreements-from-nafta-to-the-tpp/ Given the size of its economy and relatively small population, Canada places considerable importance on international trade. It is not surprising that Canada has been negotiating bilateral and regional trade agreements in recent years, especially since members of the World Trade Organization were not able to reach a new global multilateral trade agreement during that time. Business, industry and trade 870 Mon, 1 Feb 2016 00:00:00 EST Advancing Rail Safety: Employee Privacy and the Public Interest (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2015-117-e.html?cat=business Although railway mainline accident rates have declined dramatically in Canada over the past 20 years, the serious consequences of some accidents may justify a new approach to protecting railway employees, the public and the environment. Business, industry and trade 811 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 00:00:00 EST Aircraft Noise Management in Canada (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2013-08-e.htm 2013-08-E Business, industry and trade 638 Wed, 27 Feb 2013 00:00:00 EST Canada and the Asia-Pacific Region Statistical Overview (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2014-01-e.htm This paper provides a statistical representation of the demographics and economics of 21 member “economies” of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) economic forum: Australia, Brunei, Canada, Chile, China, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, Mexico, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, Peru, the Philippines, the Republic of Korea (South Korea), Russia, Singapore, Taiwan, Thailand, the United States and Vietnam. Business, industry and trade 710 Mon, 6 Jan 2014 00:00:00 EST Canada's International Trade and Investment Agreements: A Variety of Options (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2012-32-e.htm In Brief No. 2012-32-E Business, industry and trade 581 Tue, 24 Jul 2012 00:00:00 EST Canadian Trade and Investment Series 2015 (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/toctrade-e.htm The Trade and Investment Activity publication series provides information on Canada's trade and investment relationship with selected countries. Particular attention is paid to bilateral merchandise trade, trade in services and foreign investment. It also provides information on the merchandise trade relationship that each of Canada's 10 provinces and three territories has with the world. Please note that the data presented in the 2015 series are based on Statistics Canada annual figures for 2015 released in Spring 2016. Business, industry and trade 916 Mon, 19 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EST Exchange Rate Fluctuations and the Competitiveness of the Canadian Manufacturing Sector (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2013-19-e.htm The strengthening of the Canadian dollar against the U.S. dollar over the past 10 years has led to numerous discussions in Canada about the “Dutch disease.” This term refers to the notion that an economic boom in commodities leads to a rise in the exchange rate that harms the competitiveness of the manufacturing sector's exports. Eventually this phenomenon can lead to a fairly large-scale deindustrialization of a national economy. In this context, the purpose of this paper is to clarify the role that exchange rate fluctuations play in the changing competitiveness of the Canadian manufacturing sector. First, the paper analyzes changes in this sector in Canada and in selected industrialized countries. Next, for all of these countries, it examines the competitiveness of this sector, measured by unit labour cost, and compares the impacts of various factors, including the exchange rate, on this cost. Lastly, the paper draws some conclusions about the role of the exchange rate in the decline in the competitiveness of the Canadian manufacturing sector. Business, industry and trade 666 Mon, 25 Nov 2013 00:00:00 EST Gasoline: From Rack Prices to Pump Prices, Relationship and Asymmetry (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2016-32-e.html This document summarizes the various components of the pump price in Canada and briefly discusses the relationship between crude oil prices, rack prices and pump prices, including an empirical analysis of fluctuations in rack prices and pump prices in a given region and period. Business, industry and trade 914 Fri, 26 Aug 2016 00:00:00 EST HillNotes - A Primer on Driverless and Connected Vehicles (New) https://hillnotes.wordpress.com/2016/10/31/a-primer-on-driverless-and-connected-vehicles/ Driverless vehicles, otherwise known as autonomous, automated or self-driving cars, are no longer science fiction. Business, industry and trade 926 Mon, 31 Oct 2016 00:00:00 EST HillNotes - From the Rack Price to the Price at the Pump: Relationship and Asymmetry (New) https://hillnotes.wordpress.com/2016/08/31/from-the-rack-price-to-the-price-at-the-pump-relationship-and-asymmetry/ World oil prices are constantly fluctuating. However, these price variations are not necessarily reflected in the price paid by consumers at the pump. Business, industry and trade 915 Wed, 31 Aug 2016 00:00:00 EST HillNotes - Update – Ratifying and Implementing Trade and Investment Treaties in Canada (New) https://hillnotes.wordpress.com/2016/10/31/update-ratifying-and-implementing-trade-and-investment-treaties-in-canada/ Under Canada's constitutional system, the conduct of foreign affairs is a royal prerogative power of the federal Crown. Business, industry and trade 927 Mon, 31 Oct 2016 00:00:00 EST International Food Standards (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2005-99-e.htm 2005-99-E Business, industry and trade 579 Wed, 18 Jul 2012 00:00:00 EST Investor–State Dispute Settlement Mechanisms: What Is Their History and Where Are They Going? (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2015-115-e.html?cat=economics In 1959, Germany and Pakistan reached a trade agreement to encourage and protect investments between the two countries. The agreement included the first-ever investor–state dispute settlement (ISDS) mechanism. Since then, thousands of agreements containing a similar provision have been reached around the world. Canada is no exception – many of its current agreements provide for this type of mechanism. Business, industry and trade 822 Tue, 20 Oct 2015 00:00:00 EST Is the Trans-Pacific Partnership Balanced for Canada's Agricultural and Agri-Food Industry? (New) https://hillnotes.wordpress.com/2016/02/19/is-the-trans-pacific-partnership-balanced-for-canadas-agricultural-and-agri-food-industry/ On 5 November 2015, the Government of New Zealand released the text of the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP). The TPP brings together 12 countries, including Canada; in 2013 they accounted for over 35% of the world's gross domestic product. In 2014, Canada exported 65% of its agri-food production to these countries. Business, industry and trade 868 Fri, 19 Feb 2016 00:00:00 EST Market (dis)Connection in Canada's Oil and Natural Gas Sectors (New) https://hillnotes.wordpress.com/2016/03/03/market-disconnection-in-canadas-oil-and-natural-gas-sectors/ To be profitable, energy resources must be transported economically under favourable market conditions. Recent shifts in the trade dynamics of Canada's oil and gas sectors shed light on the critical link between transportation infrastructure and market access. Business, industry and trade 867 Thu, 3 Mar 2016 00:00:00 EST Public Infrastructure in Canada (New) https://hillnotes.wordpress.com/2016/01/25/public-infrastructure-in-canada/ Public infrastructure is vital to all Canadians, every day. Public infrastructure can include common-use structures, such as roads, airports and ports, as well as vehicles, for instance, those used for public transit and commercial air, rail, and marine transportation services. Other kinds of public infrastructure, such as recreation, water and wastewater facilities, contribute to quality of life in all communities. Business, industry and trade 871 Mon, 25 Jan 2016 00:00:00 EST Safety Management Systems: A Better Approach for Transportation? (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2013-77-e.htm 2013-77-E Business, industry and trade 655 Thu, 15 Aug 2013 00:00:00 EST The Business of Innovation in Canada: Challenges and Responses (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2012-34-e.htm 2012-34-E Business, industry and trade 584 Fri, 8 Jun 2012 00:00:00 EST The Canada Transportation Act Review and the Next Decade of Transportation Policy (New) https://hillnotes.wordpress.com/2016/02/17/the-canada-transportation-act-review-and-the-next-decade-of-transportation-policy/ An efficient transportation system is an important enabler of economic growth, higher standards of living and environmental benefits. It provides jobs, moves goods and connects people. Business, industry and trade 869 Wed, 17 Feb 2016 00:00:00 EST The Canadian Aerospace Industry and the Role of the Federal Government (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2013-21-e.htm 2013-21-E Business, industry and trade 642 Thu, 25 Apr 2013 00:00:00 EST Trade and Investment Series 2012 (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/toctrade-e.htm Profiles are now available for Algeria, Peru and Japan. Business, industry and trade 656 Wed, 30 Oct 2013 00:00:00 EST Trade and Investment Series 2012 (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/toctrade-e.htm Profiles are now available for France, Italy and Germany. Business, industry and trade 657 Thu, 31 Oct 2013 00:00:00 EST Trade and Investment Series 2012 (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/toctrade-e.htm Profiles are now available for South Korea, Taiwan and India. Business, industry and trade 658 Wed, 6 Nov 2013 00:00:00 EST Trade and Investment Series 2012 (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/toctrade-e.htm Profiles are now available for Thailand, Indonesia and Malaysia. Business, industry and trade 659 Wed, 6 Nov 2013 00:00:00 EST Trade and Investment Series 2012 (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/toctrade-e.htm Profiles are now available for the United States, Mexico and Colombia. Business, industry and trade 647 Thu, 17 Oct 2013 00:00:00 EST Trade and Investment Series 2012 (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/toctrade-e.htm Profiles are now available for the European Union and Chile. Business, industry and trade 649 Fri, 18 Oct 2013 00:00:00 EST Trade and Investment Series 2012 (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/toctrade-e.htm Profiles are now available for China and Norway. Business, industry and trade 650 Fri, 18 Oct 2013 00:00:00 EST Trade and Investment Series 2012 (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/toctrade-e.htm Profiles are now available for the Netherlands and Switzerland. Business, industry and trade 651 Tue, 22 Oct 2013 00:00:00 EST Trade and Investment Series 2012 (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/toctrade-e.htm Profiles are now available for Spain, Russia, Belgium and Turkey. Business, industry and trade 653 Mon, 28 Oct 2013 00:00:00 EST Trade and Investment Series 2012 (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/toctrade-e.htm Profiles are now available for Brazil, Australia, Hong Kong and the United Kingdom. Business, industry and trade 645 Fri, 11 Oct 2013 00:00:00 EST VIA Rail Canada Inc. and the Future of Passenger Rail in Canada (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2015-55-e.html?cat=business In Canada, demand for passenger rail service has declined throughout most of the last 70 years as other more competitive forms of transportation have increased their market share. Business, industry and trade 802 Mon, 31 Aug 2015 00:00:00 EST Cybercrime: Issues (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2011-36-e.htm# Publication No. 2011-36E Crime:Prevention and Responses 486 Thu, 9 Jun 2011 00:00:00 EST Public Service Reductions in the 1990s: Background and Lessons Learned (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2010-20-e.htm Publication No. 2010-20E Debt/Deficit/Budget 416 Mon, 12 Apr 2010 00:00:00 EST The Federal Debt and Rising Interest Rates: Should We Be Worried? (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2010-08-e.htm 2010-08E Debt/Deficit/Budget 356 Tue, 23 Mar 2010 00:00:00 EST Biometrics and Government (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/06-30-e.htm Publication No. 06-30E Defence and Security 379 Thu, 13 May 2010 00:00:00 EST Canadian Policy Toward Afghanistan to 2011 and Beyond: Issues, Prospects, Options (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2010-26-e.htm Publication No. 2010-26E Defence and Security 427 Mon, 4 Oct 2010 00:00:00 EST Cybersecurity and Intelligence: The US Approach (Modified) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/prb0926-e.htm 2010-02-E Defence and Security 349 Wed, 15 Jun 2011 00:00:00 EST Intelligence: Definitions, Concepts and Governance (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/prb0922-e.htm PRB 09-22E Defence and Security 345 Mon, 21 Dec 2009 00:00:00 EST Post-traumatic Stress Disorder and the Mental Health of Military Personnel and Veterans (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2011-97-e.htm 2011-97-E Defence and Security 522 Fri, 14 Oct 2011 00:00:00 EST The Arctic: Organizations Involved in Circumpolar Cooperation (Modified) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2008-15-e.htm 2008-15-E Defence and Security 604 Fri, 20 May 2016 00:00:00 EST Crude Oil Price Spike 2003-2008: The Roles of Market Fundamentals and Speculation (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/prb0918-e.htm PRB 09-18E Economic Issues 330 Mon, 20 Apr 2009 00:00:00 EST Demographic Change in Canada - 1. Overview (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2011-63-e.htm Publication No. 2011-63-E Economic Issues 500 Thu, 15 Sep 2011 00:00:00 EST Fiscal Surplus and Fiscal Deficit: Everything's Quiet on the Monetary Front (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2010-24-e.htm Publication No. 2010-24E Economic Issues 422 Mon, 14 Jun 2010 00:00:00 EST Productivity: Its Increasing Influence over Canadians' Standard of Living and Quality of Life (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/prb0315-e.htm PRB 03-15E Economic Issues 340 Thu, 25 Feb 2010 00:00:00 EST Proposed Federal Securities Regulator - 1. Economic Aspects (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2012-28-e.htm 2012-28-E Economic Issues 577 Mon, 30 Apr 2012 00:00:00 EST Public-Private Partnerships: Why, Where, When, and How (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2010-18-e.htm# Publication No. 2010-18E Economic Issues 405 Fri, 18 Jun 2010 00:00:00 EST Sovereign Wealth Funds: International and Canadian Policy Responses (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2010-09-e.htm 2010-09E Economic Issues 355 Tue, 9 Feb 2010 00:00:00 EST The Insured Mortgage Purchase Program (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/prb0856-e.htm PRB 08-56E Economic Issues 335 Fri, 13 Mar 2009 00:00:00 EST The National Building Code of Canada: A Tool for Recovery in the Forest Industry? (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2010-27-e.htm Publication No. 2010-27E Economic Issues 446 Thu, 23 Dec 2010 00:00:00 EST Wage Gap Between Women and Men (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2010-30-e.htm 2010-30 Economic Issues 441 Thu, 29 Jul 2010 00:00:00 EST Where's the Hydrogen Economy? (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2010-16-e.htm 2010-16E Economic Issues 382 Mon, 1 Feb 2010 00:00:00 EST An Economic Strategy for the International Francophonie (New) https://hillnotes.wordpress.com/2016/03/17/an-economic-strategy-for-the-international-francophonie/ International Francophonie Day is celebrated every March 20, the date on which the International Organisation of La Francophonie (IOF) was created. While it has essentially been a cultural, educational and social community since the beginning, La Francophonie has always considered the importance of reinforcing an economic dimension. Economics and finance 839 Thu, 17 Mar 2016 00:00:00 EST Below-Target Inflation and Monetary Policy (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2014-07-e.htm During and following the global financial and economic crisis, central bankers in a number of countries implemented unprecedented monetary stimulus measures to encourage economic growth. These included a marked and timely lowering of their policy interest rates. Now, central bankers in Canada, the United States, some other developed countries and the euro area are concerned about the inflation rate being persistently below the target they had set for it. Economics and finance 702 Wed, 5 Feb 2014 00:00:00 EST Canada's Equalization Formula (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2008-20-e.htm Equalization is a federal transfer payment program that was first introduced in 1957 and is designed to reduce the differences in revenue-generating capacity across Canada's 10 provinces. By compensating poorer provinces for their relatively weak tax bases or resource endowments, Equalization helps to ensure that Canadians residing in provinces have access to a reasonably similar level of provincial government services at reasonably similar levels of taxation, regardless of which province they call home. Another federal transfer program, Territorial Formula Financing, serves a similar purpose for territorial governments. Economics and finance 667 Mon, 25 Nov 2013 00:00:00 EST Canada's Gold Reserves Reach Historic Low (New) https://hillnotes.wordpress.com/2016/05/10/canadas-gold-reserves-reach-historic-low/ Canada's gold reserves have fallen to almost zero. As of 29 April 2016, the nation's official gold reserves stood at a record low 55 ounces, valued at US$70,711. Economics and finance 901 Tue, 10 May 2016 00:00:00 EST Canadian Trade and Investment Activity: Canada–Burma (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2013-98-e.htm 2013-98-E Economics and finance 704 Fri, 13 Dec 2013 00:00:00 EST Canadian Trade and Investment Activity: Canada–Philippines (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2013-99-e.htm 2013-99-E Economics and finance 706 Fri, 13 Dec 2013 00:00:00 EST Canadian Trade and Investment Activity: Canada–Singapore (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2013-97-e.htm 2013-97-E Economics and finance 705 Fri, 13 Dec 2013 00:00:00 EST Combatting Global Corporate Tax Evasion and Avoidance: An International Framework (New) https://hillnotes.wordpress.com/2016/02/08/combatting-global-corporate-tax-evasion-and-avoidance-an-international-framework/ According to the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), aggressive tax planning by multinational companies results in lost tax revenues of between $100 billion and $240 billion a year. That is equivalent to 4% to 10% of global corporate income tax revenue. Economics and finance 840 Mon, 8 Feb 2016 00:00:00 EST Current Issues in Mental Health in Canada: The Economic Impact of Mental Illness (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2013-87-e.htm This document provides a brief overview of the three types of costs associated with illness in general and the results of three recent Canadian studies on the economic impact of mental illness. It then examines the consequences for public finances and some solutions to attempt to control costs. Economics and finance 699 Fri, 27 Sep 2013 00:00:00 EST Distribution of Federal Revenues and Expenditures by Province (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2017-01-e.html?cat=economics#note The federal government collects revenues from the residents of all Canadian provinces. It also incurs expenditures and implements programs that are widely available to all Canadians, regardless of their province of residence. Economics and finance 950 Tue, 10 Jan 2017 00:00:00 EST Economic Forecasts Used for the Federal Budget and Adjustment for Risk (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2015-15-e.html Each year, Canada's finance minister sets forth in a budget document the federal government's intentions, presented as projected revenues and expenses for the upcoming fiscal years. These intentions cannot become reality without Parliament's adoption of one or more budget implementation bills or appropriation Acts authorizing departments to spend. Economics and finance 791 Mon, 9 Mar 2015 00:00:00 EST Economic Indicators: A Graphical Look at Canada's Economy (New) https://hillnotes.wordpress.com/2016/06/17/economic-indicators-a-graphical-look-at-canadas-economy/ Like other nations, Canada and its economy are ever-changing. In part, these changes can be assessed by examining what are sometimes characterized as key economic indicators. Economics and finance 908 Fri, 17 Jun 2016 00:00:00 EST Federal Regional Economic Development Organizations (Modified) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2011-05-e.html This paper provides a brief overview of the history of federal regional development organizations and agencies, as well as their relationship with Parliament, their expenditures and their main policy instruments. The paper concludes with a brief discussion of the ongoing debate regarding the impact of regional economic development policies in Canada. Economics and finance 785 Thu, 25 Sep 2014 00:00:00 EST Financial Challenges for Canadian Defined Benefit Pension Plans (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2016-22-e.html?cat=economics For some years now, pension plans – and particularly defined benefit pension plans (DBPP) – have been facing a number of challenges. These challenges, which affect in particular DBPP solvency ratios, include the return on financial assets, increased longevity and demographic changes, and fair value accounting. Economics and finance 911 Mon, 21 Mar 2016 00:00:00 EST How the Bank of Canada Creates Money for the Federal Government: Operational and Legal Aspects (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2015-51-e.html?cat=economics This paper explores the operational and legal aspects of how, by buying newly issued federal government bonds and treasury bills, the Bank of Canada creates money for the federal government. Information about how private commercial banks create money is also provided. Economics and finance 800 Mon, 10 Aug 2015 00:00:00 EST Income Inequality in Canada: Current Situation (New) https://hillnotes.wordpress.com/2016/01/28/income-inequality-in-canada-current-situation/ For a number of years, growing inequality has been at the forefront of public debate. Interest in this issue has increased in the wake of the last recession and because many respected organizations and economists have concluded that high levels of inequality negatively affect the economy. Economics and finance 841 Thu, 28 Jan 2016 00:00:00 EST Managing Tax Debt in Canada: A Challenge for Public Finances (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2014-78-e.htm The Canada Revenue Agency (CRA) is responsible for administering income tax, the goods and services tax/harmonized sales tax (GST/HST) and most other taxes on behalf of the federal government. The CRA also has agreements with all provinces and territories, except Quebec, to collect provincial and territorial taxes on their behalf. Economics and finance 772 Wed, 27 Aug 2014 00:00:00 EST Parliament and Monetary Policy in Canada (New) https://hillnotes.wordpress.com/2015/12/10/parliament-and-monetary-policy-in-canada/ Monetary policy is one of the two key components of the Government of Canada's economic policy, the other being fiscal policy. Fiscal policy includes measures by the government to raise revenue (taxation, user fees, etc.) and spend funds (transfers, programs, etc.), whereas monetary policy refers to measures by the central bank – the Bank of Canada – to influence the quantity and value of money in circulation. Economics and finance 842 Thu, 10 Dec 2015 00:00:00 EST Productivity in Canada: Concepts and Issues (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2014-84-e.html?cat=economics Productivity is an indicator that can be used to measure the economic performance of a worker, a business, an industry or a geographic region, such as a province or a country. This background paper summarizes the key basic concepts related to productivity and its determinants. It then looks at how productivity has changed in Canada, the provinces and internationally in recent years, highlighting the differences in productivity between Canada and the United States. Lastly, it explores possible solutions that could help boost Canadian productivity and move it closer to that of the U.S. Economics and finance 776 Tue, 16 Sep 2014 00:00:00 EST Productivity in Canada: Opportunities and Challenges (New) https://hillnotes.wordpress.com/2015/11/25/productivity-in-canada-opportunities-and-challenges/ Productivity – the amount produced per hour of work – is one of the main drivers of economic growth, especially in an aging society such as Canada's. Economics and finance 843 Wed, 25 Nov 2015 00:00:00 EST Public-Private Partnerships: Are Canadians Getting the Full Picture? (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2015-50-e.html?cat=economics Increasingly, governments around the world are turning to public-private partnerships (P3s) to provide complex and large-scale infrastructure. The shift to P3s can be attributed to several factors, such as the growing need for infrastructure development and renewal, the continued effort to achieve efficiencies in the public sector, and the reality that most governments face ongoing budget constraints. Economics and finance 803 Fri, 26 Jun 2015 00:00:00 EST Registered Education Savings Plans: Then and Now (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2016-110-e.html?cat=economics The federal government officially created the Registered Education Savings Plan (RESP) program in 1974. Since then, there have been numerous changes to the program, increasing its popularity and encouraging Canadians to save more for their children's post-secondary education. Economics and finance 944 Mon, 12 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST The Canadian Automotive Manufacturing Sector Since 2001 (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2015-53-e.html?cat=economics The Canadian automotive manufacturing sector can be divided into three subsectors: motor vehicle manufacturing (“vehicles”), motor vehicle body and trailer manufacturing (“bodies and trailers”) and motor vehicle parts manufacturing (“parts”). The sector is concentrated in Ontario, which accounted for 91% of output and 83% of employment in the sector in 2014. Economics and finance 816 Thu, 20 Aug 2015 00:00:00 EST The Food Price Increase of 2010–2011: Causes and Impacts (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2013-02-e.htm 2013-02-E Economics and finance 643 Wed, 16 Jan 2013 00:00:00 EST The Gas Tax Fund: Chronology, Funding and Agreements (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2016-99-e.html?cat=economics Public infrastructure, which includes facilities for transportation, communication, power generation, water distribution, public sanitation and pollution abatement, is essential to a nation's economic vitality and the welfare of its people. Governments are responsible for keeping public infrastructure in good working order and for replacing these assets as they reach the end of their lifespan or become obsolete. Economics and finance 928 Mon, 26 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EST Official Languages and Parliament (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2015-131-e.html?cat=education In Canada, a number of constitutional provisions concern the use of official languages in the legislative realm, thus recognizing the right of both official language communities to participate equally in the parliamentary process. These provisions stem from the collective history of Canadians, and their presence in the Constitution of Canada confirms the fundamental nature of those rights. Education and training 823 Thu, 10 Dec 2015 00:00:00 EST Recognition of the Foreign Qualifications of Immigrants (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2004-29-e.htm?cat=education Anecdotal accounts of physicians and engineers immigrating to Canada only to drive taxis or clean offices are common. The impression that today's immigrants to Canada are not faring as well as those of past generations has been backed up with statistics. Yet at the same time, some regions of Canada are experiencing labour shortages. Positions go unfilled while qualified professional or skilled immigrants remain unemployed or underemployed. Education and training 845 Mon, 2 Apr 2012 00:00:00 EST Social Media and Job Searching Among Young Canadian Workers: A Summary of Government Initiatives (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2012-44-e.htm?cat=education This publication will examine the role that social media play in the job search process of young Canadian workers. Although there are many other social media platforms, this analysis will focus on Facebook, Twitter and LinkedIn, which are the platforms that are most commonly used for job searching. This study will also provide a summary of the various federal government initiatives that offer support to job seekers, as well as an overview of ground-breaking programs that have been implemented by other governments. Education and training 844 Thu, 26 Jul 2012 00:00:00 EST Youth Civic Engagement (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2010-23-e.htm 2010-23E Elections, Referendums and Polling 410 Thu, 8 Apr 2010 00:00:00 EST Youth Voter Turnout in Canada - 2. Reasons for the Decline and Efforts to Increase Participation (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2010-21-e.htm blication No. 2010-21E Elections, Referendums and Polling 411 Tue, 13 Jul 2010 00:00:00 EST Employment Insurance Financing (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2014-89-e.html?cat=employment Employment Insurance (EI) is one of the largest programs administered by the federal government, with expenditures of $19 billion in 2013–2014, most of it ($15 billion) as benefits paid to workers who are unemployed for a variety of reasons. Employment and labour 780 Fri, 31 Oct 2014 00:00:00 EST Employment Insurance: Ten Changes in 2012–2013 (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2013-03-e.htm 2013-03-E Employment and labour 627 Wed, 23 Jan 2013 00:00:00 EST Employment Trends, Seasonality and Cycles in Canada (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2015-14-e.html In 1976, there was a total of 9.7 million full- and part-time jobs in Canada. Nearly 40 years later, in 2014, there were 17.9 million jobs - almost double that number. This increase is largely attributable to population growth and a higher participation rate - that is, a greater proportion of the population that is either employed or looking for work - especially among women (since 1976) and among those 55 and over (since 1995). Meanwhile, the unemployment rate remained fairly stable (7.1% in 1976, compared with 6.9% in 2014). Employment and labour 794 Thu, 5 Mar 2015 00:00:00 EST Persons with Disabilities in the Canadian Labour Market: An Overlooked Talent Pool (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2013-17-e.htm 2013-17-E Employment and labour 640 Fri, 29 Mar 2013 00:00:00 EST Precarious Employment in Canada: An Overview of the Situation (New) https://hillnotes.wordpress.com/2016/01/27/precarious-employment-in-canada-an-overview-of-the-situation/ Recent studies have raised questions about the quality of jobs in Canada. These studies have also highlighted concerns regarding the impact of precarious employment on the well-being of workers and the general population. Employment and labour 847 Wed, 27 Jan 2016 00:00:00 EST Supplementary Measures of Unemployment in Canada (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2013-14-e.htm Each month, policy-makers carefully track changes in the unemployment rate, which is considered a key indicator of economic conditions in Canada. The official unemployment rate is the number of unemployed as a percentage of the total labour force, which includes both employed and unemployed people. However, some analysts believe that focusing solely on the official unemployment rate may not paint an accurate picture of the labour market. That is because the unemployment rate does not capture all types of slack in the labour force. Employment and labour 730 Wed, 6 Mar 2013 00:00:00 EST Temporary Foreign Workers (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2014-79-e.html?cat=employment This paper offers an overview of temporary work permit programs in Canada and outlines some policy considerations surrounding this approach to meeting labour market objectives. Employment and labour 849 Mon, 1 Dec 2014 00:00:00 EST The Employment Insurance Program in Canada: How It Works (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2010-52-e.htm?cat=employment The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the benefits that are available and the program's financing mechanism. Readers interested in additional information may consult the Digest of Benefit Entitlement Principles, which provides a more detailed description of the program's various regulations. Employment and labour 850 Thu, 14 Aug 2014 00:00:00 EST Clean Coal? (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/prb0542-e.htm PRB 05-42E Energy 350 Wed, 10 Mar 2010 00:00:00 EST Climate Change and Forced Migration: Canada's Role (Modified) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2010-04-e.htm 2010-04E Environment and Sustainable Development 351 Fri, 1 Feb 2013 00:00:00 EST Climate Change Negotiations: The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, the Copenhagen Accord and Emissions Reduction Targets (Modified) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2010-29-e.htm Publication No. 2010-29E Environment and Sustainable Development 432 Mon, 7 Nov 2011 00:00:00 EST Development Aid in a Changing Climate: The Challenge of Fragility in the Least Developed World (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2010-12-e.htm Publication No. 2010-12E Environment and Sustainable Development 409 Mon, 12 Jul 2010 00:00:00 EST Federal Environmental Assessment: Overview of the Law and Recent Issues (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2011-87-e.htm Publication No. 2011-87-E Environment and Sustainable Development 529 Fri, 18 Nov 2011 00:00:00 EST Pipelines: Environmental Considerations (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2012-37-e.htm In Brief No. 2012-37-E Environment and Sustainable Development 585 Wed, 12 Sep 2012 00:00:00 EST Legislative Summary of Bill S-5: An Act to amend the law governing financial institutions and to provide for related and consequential matters (New) https://lop.parl.ca/About/Parliament/LegislativeSummaries/bills_ls.asp?ls=s5&Parl=41&Ses=1&source=library_prb&Language=E Publication No. 41-1-S5-E Financial Institutions 552 Mon, 20 Feb 2012 00:00:00 EST International Development: The Aid Effectiveness Debate (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/prb0907-e.htm PRB 09-07E Foreign Affairs and International Law 320 Wed, 24 Jun 2009 00:00:00 EST Passports and Consular Services Provided to Canadian Citizens Abroad (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/prb0919-e.htm PRB 09-19E Foreign Affairs and International Law 334 Wed, 14 Oct 2009 00:00:00 EST The Foreign Investment Review Process in Canada (Modified) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2011-42-e.htm Publication No. 2011-42-E Foreign Affairs and International Law 528 Mon, 21 Jul 2014 00:00:00 EST A pas de deux: The Division of Federal and Provincial Legislative Powers in Sections 91 and 92 of the Constitution Act, 1867 (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2015-128-e.html?cat=government The Canadian federation is divided between a central government and provincial and territorial governments. In discussions of the relationship between federal and provincial governments (unlike provinces, territories in Canada do not have inherent jurisdiction, but possess only the powers delegated or devolved to them by the federal government), the term “levels of government” is often used. This term can be misleading, as it implies that one government is subordinate to the other. Instead, the federal government and the provincial governments are better described as “coordinate,” having equal authority and independence in their distinct spheres. Government, Parliament and politics 819 Tue, 8 Dec 2015 00:00:00 EST An Introduction to Federal Government Pension Plans (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2015-110-e.html?cat=government As an employer, the federal government partly funds six pension plans. These six pension plans are funded partly by employee contributions and partly by government contributions, which until now have been larger than those of employees. Government, Parliament and politics 814 Wed, 28 Oct 2015 00:00:00 EST Are you Ready to Legislate? (New) https://hillnotes.wordpress.com/2016/02/16/are-you-ready-to-legislate/ Government legislation often overshadows the important role played by individual members of Parliament and senators in proposing laws. Since 1910, 278 bills sponsored by MPs and senators have been passed by Parliament, 43 in the 41st Parliament alone. Government, Parliament and politics 881 Tue, 16 Feb 2016 00:00:00 EST Canada hosts the 127th Assembly of the Inter-Parliamentary Union (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2012-81-e.htm 2012-81-E Government, Parliament and politics 598 Wed, 17 Oct 2012 00:00:00 EST Changes in a Parliamentarian's Party Affiliation (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2016-101-e.html?cat=government Most Canadian parliamentarians are affiliated with a political party. In Parliament, those affiliated with the same political party are referred to as a “caucus.” Government, Parliament and politics 935 Thu, 20 Oct 2016 00:00:00 EST Combatting Money Laundering and Terrorist Financing: Canada's Regime (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2014-04-e.htm According to the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, each year roughly US$800 billion to US$2 trillion in money or assets derived from criminal activity is laundered globally, equivalent to about 2% to 5% of the world's gross domestic product. In 2011, the Royal Canadian Mounted Police estimated that between C$5 billion and C$15 billion is laundered each year in Canada. Government, Parliament and politics 697 Wed, 29 Jan 2014 00:00:00 EST Conflict of Interest at the Federal Level: Legislative Framework (Modified) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2010-92-e.htm Conflict of interest rules applicable to ministers, parliamentary secretaries, other public office holders and parliamentarians were once found in various federal statutes such as the Criminal Code and the Parliament of Canada Act. Over time, beginning in 1973 with then prime minister Pierre Trudeau's guidelines for Cabinet ministers, conflict of interest rules and guidelines have replaced or supplemented these statutory rules. Government, Parliament and politics 689 Mon, 19 Aug 2013 00:00:00 EST Criminal Charges and Parliamentarians (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2012-38-e.htm 2012-38-E Government, Parliament and politics 600 Thu, 28 Jun 2012 00:00:00 EST Designation of National Days and Observances in Canada (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2015-06-e.html Scarcely a week goes by when some special day or observance is not marked somewhere in Canada. From legal holidays like Victoria Day and Canada Day, to days recognizing specific individuals or groups, to religious and cultural occasions, the Canadian calendar is replete with celebrations and commemorations. There is no central authority in Canada responsible for the proclamation of national days. Days declared special by any public body, including municipal, provincial or federal governments or even international bodies such as the United Nations, as well as any private association, cultural group or religious institution, can be recognized in Canada. Government, Parliament and politics 792 Fri, 6 Feb 2015 00:00:00 EST Electoral Systems and Electoral Reform in Canada and Elsewhere: An Overview (Modified) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2016-06-e.html?cat=government Over the years, the system Canada uses to elect members of Parliament has been a frequent subject of discussion and examination. The electoral system Canada currently uses, known as a plurality or first-past-the-post system, has been employed for every federal election since Confederation. Government, Parliament and politics 821 Wed, 1 Jun 2016 00:00:00 EST Electoral Systems and Women's Representation (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2016-30-e.html This paper explores electoral systems and women's representation in legislatures. Electoral systems are one factor among many that may impact women's political representation in legislatures. In and of themselves, electoral systems cannot be understood as vehicles to ensure or increase women's representation, as the social, cultural and political realities of each jurisdiction affect women's representation under different electoral systems in vastly different ways. The goal of this paper is not to address all of these factors, but simply to highlight some of the key features of plurality or majority, proportional representation and mixed electoral systems and how they may affect the election of women in selected jurisdictions. In this paper, we also discuss different gender quota systems used around the world and their effects on some countries. Government, Parliament and politics 912 Tue, 16 Aug 2016 00:00:00 EST Federal Government Finances: Questions and Answers (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2016-23-e.html?cat=government What is gross domestic product (GDP)? What is the difference between real GDP and nominal GDP? How is the inflation rate calculated? What accounts does the federal government use for such transactions as paying Employment Insurance benefits and collecting sales and income tax? What are the federal government's total revenues and expenditures? What are the principal sources of its revenues and expenditures? What happens when the government has a budgetary deficit or surplus? What is the difference between gross debt and net debt, and between financial and non-financial assets? How does cash-based accounting differ from accrual accounting? You can find the responses to these and similar questions in a new Library of Parliament publication. It contains over 20 of these types of questions with clear and concise answers accompanied by tables and interactive graphics. Government, Parliament and politics 899 Thu, 18 Feb 2016 00:00:00 EST Federal Health Care Funding in the Current Economic Context (New) https://hillnotes.wordpress.com/2016/02/03/federal-health-care-funding-in-the-current-economic-context/ Provincial and territorial health care systems in Canada are facing common challenges. The population is aging; chronic non-communicable diseases are becoming increasingly prevalent; and demand is rising for new, and often costly, health technologies. Government, Parliament and politics 882 Wed, 3 Feb 2016 00:00:00 EST Federal Public Sector Whistleblowing (Modified) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2008-63-e.html An allegation of corporate or bureaucratic misbehaviour usually comes from a current or former employee. The “whistleblower” discloses the wrongdoing of either his or her employer or a fellow employee. Typically, the allegation involves a breach of law or a potentially serious threat to public health and safety. Although such a disclosure may be held in high esteem by society, the whistleblower often faces disagreeable consequences, including reprisal by the employer. Government, Parliament and politics 815 Thu, 5 Nov 2015 00:00:00 EST Federal Public Sector Whistleblowing (Modified) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2008-63-e.htm In Brief No. 2008-63-E Government, Parliament and politics 582 Wed, 25 Jul 2012 00:00:00 EST Federal Regional Economic Development Organizations (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2011-05-e.htm Publication No. 2011-05-E Government, Parliament and politics 490 Wed, 6 Jul 2011 00:00:00 EST Federal Support for Bus Rapid Transit and Light Rail Transit Systems in Canada (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2010-64-e.htm Publication No. 2010-64 Government, Parliament and politics 440 Wed, 1 Dec 2010 00:00:00 EST Gender-Sensitive Parliaments: 1. Advancements in the Workplace (Modified) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2012-40-e.htm 2012-40-E Government, Parliament and politics 591 Fri, 5 Apr 2013 00:00:00 EST Government 2.0 and Access to Information: 1. Recent Developments in Proactive Disclosure and Open Data in Canada (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2010-14-e.htm 2010-14E Government, Parliament and politics 385 Thu, 15 Apr 2010 00:00:00 EST Government 2.0 and Access to Information: 2. Recent Developments in Proactive Disclosure and Open Data in the United States and Other Countries (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2010-15-e.htm 2010-15E Government, Parliament and politics 386 Thu, 15 Apr 2010 00:00:00 EST Government 2.0 and Proactive Disclosure of Grants and Contributions Awards (New) HillNotes Government, Parliament and politics 476 Wed, 23 Mar 2011 00:00:00 EST Government of Canada and Social Finance (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2015-140-e.html?cat=government Before the convening of the 42nd Parliament, mandate letters from the Prime Minister to the Minister of Families, Children and Social Development and the Minister of Employment, Workforce Development and Labour included the direction to “develop a Social Innovation and Social Finance strategy.” Government, Parliament and politics 824 Fri, 18 Dec 2015 00:00:00 EST Language Regimes in the Provinces and Territories (Modified) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2011-66-e.html?cat=government Canada's Constitution contains no provision relating to jurisdiction over language. In a 1988 decision, the Supreme Court of Canada affirmed, “Language is not an independent matter of legislation but is rather ‘ancillary' to the exercise of jurisdiction with respect to some class of subject matter assigned to Parliament or the provincial legislatures by the Constitution Act, 1867.” The power to legislate with regard to language therefore belongs to both the federal and provincial levels of government, under their respective legislative authorities. Government, Parliament and politics 817 Fri, 8 Jan 2016 00:00:00 EST Language Regimes in the Provinces and Territories (Modified) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2011-66-e.htm This document summarizes the provincial and territorial language regimes as well as current practices in the intergovernmental collaboration sector. Government, Parliament and politics 496 Thu, 9 Jan 2014 00:00:00 EST Official Languages in Canada: Federal Policy (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2011-70-e.html?cat=government The legal protection of English and French is rooted in the British North America Act. Section 133 of this Act allows for the use of English and French in parliamentary debates and court proceedings, and makes it mandatory in the printing and publication of laws by the Parliament of Canada and the Legislature of Quebec. In 1969, the federal government established a more formal framework for the use of English and French in its very first Official Languages Act, consequent to the Royal Commission of Inquiry on Bilingualism and Biculturalism's recommendations. Government, Parliament and politics 884 Mon, 18 Jan 2016 00:00:00 EST Official Languages or National Languages? Canada's Decision (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2014-81-e.html?cat=government On 16 October 2013, in the Speech from the Throne beginning the 2nd Session of the 41st Parliament, the Right Honourable David Johnston, Governor General of Canada, described Canada as a “federation in which [our] two national languages position us uniquely in the world.” The Prime Minister of Canada also used the term “national languages” in his message in the Roadmap for Canada's Official Languages 2013–2018, and it has been used by the government on other occasions. Government, Parliament and politics 782 Fri, 6 Feb 2015 00:00:00 EST Omnibus Bills: Frequently Asked Questions (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2012-79-e.htm 2012-79-E Government, Parliament and politics 608 Mon, 1 Oct 2012 00:00:00 EST Parliament and Supreme Court of Canada Reference Cases (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2015-44-e.html?cat=government When Parliament created the Supreme Court of Canada ("the Court") in 1875, it conferred upon the Court the ability to hear references – that is, questions of law not arising from traditional legal disputes between parties. Since then, the Court has examined many important legal and constitutional issues in such reference cases, and its opinions in these matters are considered to be among the Court's most important and influential. Government, Parliament and politics 801 Wed, 12 Aug 2015 00:00:00 EST Parliamentary Committee Review of Regulations (Modified) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2005-63-e.htm?cat=government To deal with increasingly complex and technical issues, Parliament has tended to enact legislation that sets out key principles but leaves the details to be spelled out in regulations. Parliament delegates the power to make these regulations to the executive branch of government. While regulations are useful tools for governing, concerns have been raised about accountability. As pointed out by Elizabeth Weir, a former member of the New Brunswick Legislative Assembly, “[i]t remains the responsibility of the legislature to ensure that the executive is accountable for its use of ‘law-making' powers.” Government, Parliament and politics 580 Mon, 4 May 2015 00:00:00 EST Parliamentary Involvement in Foreign Policy (Modified) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2008-60-e.htm Historically, Parliament's role in the conduct of foreign affairs has been limited, for the most part, to reviewing executive powers exercised in pursuance of foreign policy. This is largely a function of Canada's constitutional structure inherited from Great Britain, by which the conduct of foreign affairs falls within the exercise of the “royal prerogative” by Cabinet. Government, Parliament and politics 740 Wed, 28 Aug 2013 00:00:00 EST Passport and Consular Services (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2015-43-e.html?cat=government A passport is “an official Canadian document that shows the identity and nationality of a person for the purpose of facilitating travel by that person outside Canada.” The Canadian passport is recognized worldwide. Government, Parliament and politics 902 Mon, 26 Oct 2015 00:00:00 EST Performance Auditing at the Office of the Auditor General of Canada: Beyond Bean Counting (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2011-71-e.htm Publication no 2011-71-E Government, Parliament and politics 521 Tue, 1 Nov 2011 00:00:00 EST Pipelines: Government Decision-Making (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2012-14-e.htm 2012-14-E Government, Parliament and politics 602 Thu, 13 Sep 2012 00:00:00 EST Question Period in the Canadian Parliament and Other Legislatures (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2011-88-e.htm 2011-88-E Government, Parliament and politics 539 Fri, 9 Dec 2011 00:00:00 EST Something in the Soil: Electoral Reform in Prince Edward Island (New) https://hillnotes.wordpress.com/2016/06/01/something-in-the-soil-electoral-reform-in-prince-edward-island/ What do iron oxide and electoral reform have in common? Both are found in abundance on Prince Edward Island. Government, Parliament and politics 905 Wed, 1 Jun 2016 00:00:00 EST The Access to Information Act and Recent Proposals for Reform (Modified) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2005-55-e.htm 2005-55-E Government, Parliament and politics 347 Thu, 19 Jul 2012 00:00:00 EST The Canadian Electoral System (Modified) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2013-81-e.html?cat=government This paper provides an overview of the nature and operation of the Canadian electoral system, with a focus on elections for the federal Parliament. In keeping with Canada's federal system of government, each province has its own system for elections to its legislatures. The federal and provincial electoral processes are independent of each other. Government, Parliament and politics 753 Thu, 22 Oct 2015 00:00:00 EST The Office of the Auditor General of Canada: Beyond Bean Counting (Modified) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2011-71-e.htm?cat=government The Office of the Auditor General (OAG) has existed for more than 130 years. At its inception in 1878, the OAG's work focused on the financial auditing of federal departments and agencies, mostly through accountancy and bookkeeping. Nearly a century later, in 1977, the OAG's mandate was expanded to include performance audits, which were referred to as value-for-money audits at that time; these audits involve a different methodology and approach and have a relatively broader scope than typical financial audits. The audit professionals at the OAG have a variety of backgrounds, and include accountants, economists, engineers and environmental specialists. This paper explains various aspects of, and issues related to, the OAG. First, it describes the OAG's mandate, role and relationship with Parliament. It also provides a brief description of the evolution of the OAG from 1878 to today, focusing on the broadening of its mandate over the years. Second, the paper describes the OAG's three main product lines: financial audits, performance audits and special examinations. Finally, the paper discusses selected aspects of the OAG with respect to its role and mandate, the manner in which the Office remains accountable to Parliament, and its audit approach and methodology. Government, Parliament and politics 769 Wed, 9 Jul 2014 00:00:00 EST The Official Languages Act: Understanding Its Principles and Implementation (Modified) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2011-55-e.htm Publication no 2011-55-E Government, Parliament and politics 489 Mon, 14 Dec 2015 00:00:00 EST The Parliamentary Financial Cycle (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2015-41-e.htm?cat=government The goal of this publication is to provide a broad overview of the various components of the Canadian parliamentary financial cycle and the reporting documents associated with it, in order to assist parliamentarians in their consideration of the government's taxation and spending plans. Government, Parliament and politics 883 Wed, 27 Jan 2016 00:00:00 EST The Role of the Courts in the Recognition of Language Rights (Modified) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2011-68-e.htm Publication No. 2011-68-E Government, Parliament and politics 492 Wed, 23 Jan 2013 00:00:00 EST The Roles and Responsibilities of Central Agencies (Modified) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2009-01-e.html?cat=government The Canadian federal government is composed of approximately 150 departments, agencies, Crown corporations, commissions and other organizations. The mandates of these organizations is usually set out in founding legislation, and the general roles and responsibilities of the organizations can often be inferred from their name; for example, Health Canada and Environment Canada have overall responsibility for the federal role in health and the environment respectively. Government, Parliament and politics 795 Wed, 22 Apr 2015 00:00:00 EST The Supreme Court of Canada and the Senate (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2013-93-e.htm For three days in November 2013, Canada's top court will hold long-awaited hearings on Senate reform in a bid to resolve issues that arguably have as much to do with constitutional history as they do with law. Government, Parliament and politics 660 Wed, 6 Nov 2013 00:00:00 EST Update – Women in Canada's Parliament (New) https://hillnotes.wordpress.com/2016/03/08/update-women-in-canadas-parliament/ In 1921, Agnes Macphail was the first woman to be elected to Canada's House of Commons and the only woman to serve in the 14th Parliament. In 1930, Cairine Wilson was sworn in as Canada's first female senator. These female trailblazers opened the doors of Parliament to future generations of Canadian women. Government, Parliament and politics 880 Tue, 8 Mar 2016 00:00:00 EST Women in Parliament (Modified) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2011-56-e.htm Publication No. 2011-56-E Government, Parliament and politics 491 Tue, 2 Jul 2013 00:00:00 EST Youth Voter Turnout in Canada (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2016-104-e.html?cat=government From 1980 to 2015, Canada's youngest voters turned out for federal general elections in numbers well below the turnout rate for all other demographic groups. Government, Parliament and politics 937 Thu, 13 Oct 2016 00:00:00 EST Catastrophic Drug Coverage in Canada (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2016-10-e.html?cat=health Unlike most member countries of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), Canada does not have a national pharmacare program - that is, a single system of public insurance coverage for prescription drugs. There are various models for such a system. The design of pharmacare programs is determined by a number of factors, including which population groups they target, which types of prescriptions they cover, and how they are financed. Health 828 Thu, 4 Feb 2016 00:00:00 EST Current Issues in Mental Health in Canada: Child and Youth Mental Health (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2014-13-e.htm Between 15% and 25% of Canadians experience at least one mental health problem or illness before they turn 19, and these individuals have a higher likelihood than others of facing a second one later in their lifetime. Unfortunately, only one in six people under 19 is adequately diagnosed, and only one in five under 12 receives the treatment he or she needs. Health 738 Wed, 5 Mar 2014 00:00:00 EST Current Issues in Mental Health in Canada: Directions in Federal Substance Abuse Policy (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2014-06-e.htm Advances in neuroscience have changed our understanding of the impact of psychoactive substances on the brain, supporting new public health approaches in this area. It is within this context that this publication examines current and emerging issues shaping federal substance abuse policy today. Health 727 Tue, 28 Jan 2014 00:00:00 EST Current Issues in Mental Health in Canada: Homelessness and Access to Housing (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2014-11-e.htm The relationship between mental health problems and homelessness and access to housing is complex. Individuals with mental health problems or mental illnesses are predisposed to experiencing housing insecurity and homelessness, and poor mental health can be caused, triggered or aggravated by homelessness or housing that does not meet a certain standard of adequacy, affordability and suitability. Health 731 Fri, 14 Feb 2014 00:00:00 EST Current Issues in Mental Health in Canada: Mental Health in the Canadian Forces and Among Veterans (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2013-91-e.htm On 7 July 2011, after nine and a half years in Afghanistan, Canada officially terminated its military combat operations in that country. Approximately 1,000 members of the Canadian Forces (CF) will nevertheless remain there until 2014 to provide training support for Afghan security forces. A total of approximately 30,000 Canadian service personnel were deployed to Afghanistan, which in terms of strength exceeds Canadian participation in the Korean War between 1950 and 1953, thereby making the deployment in Afghanistan the largest Canadian military operation since the Second World War. One hundred and fifty-eight soldiers and four civilians died in Afghanistan. Health 679 Tue, 10 Dec 2013 00:00:00 EST Current Issues in Mental Health in Canada: Psychological Health and Safety in the Workplace (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2013-78-e.htm Mental health issues in the workplace cost the Canadian economy an estimated $20.7 billion in 2012. According to the Mental Health Commission of Canada, almost 25% of Canada's working population is affected by mental health issues that lead to higher rates of absenteeism, “presenteeism” and employee turnover. Health 703 Mon, 28 Oct 2013 00:00:00 EST Current Issues in Mental Health in Canada: The Federal Role in Mental Health (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2013-76-e.htm There are many definitions of mental health; some are more encompassing than others, but most address several aspects of a person's well-being. The World Health Organization's widely used definition is “a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.” This paper identifies the role that the federal government plays in this broad area. It outlines the jurisdictional basis for that role in such areas as direct service provision to certain population groups; the funding of pan-Canadian mental health programs, services and initiatives; and criminal law. It then describes the programs and initiatives that the federal government has introduced in these areas. Health 683 Mon, 16 Dec 2013 00:00:00 EST HIV/AIDS – Past, Present and Future (Modified) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2011-86-e.htm Publication No. 2011-86-E Health 530 Wed, 1 May 2013 00:00:00 EST Late-Onset Alzheimer's Disease and Related Dementias (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2015-133-e.html?cat=health Some memory loss can be associated with healthy aging, or normal aging. Dementia, however, refers to a progressive condition that robs a person of much more than the occasional ability to recall events, names or ideas. The most common type of dementia is Alzheimer's disease (AD). Health 818 Fri, 11 Dec 2015 00:00:00 EST Organ Donation and Transplantation in Canada (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2011-113-e.html?cat=health The organ donor rate in Canada continues to be mediocre despite efforts in recent years to increase it. This paper will provide an overview of the Canadian experience with respect to the federal role in organ donation and transplantation, discuss some of the statistics involved and discuss the options for increasing the donor rate, such as through registries, presumed consent and expanding donor criteria. Health 854 Fri, 21 Nov 2014 00:00:00 EST Organ Donation and Transplantation in Canada (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2011-113-e.htm 2011-113-E Health 542 Thu, 10 Nov 2011 00:00:00 EST Organ Donation and Transplantation in Canada (Modified) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2011-113-e.html?cat=health The organ donor rate in Canada continues to be mediocre despite efforts in recent years to increase it. This paper will provide an overview of the Canadian experience with respect to the federal role in organ donation and transplantation, discuss some of the statistics involved and discuss the options for increasing the donor rate, such as through registries, presumed consent and expanding donor criteria. Health 781 Fri, 21 Nov 2014 00:00:00 EST Pandemic Influenza (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2004-57-e.html?cat=health A pandemic is an outbreak of a specific illness in multiple areas covering a vast geographic area. This paper will describe flu viruses and the flu pandemics that have afflicted humankind, and discuss the plans, both Canadian and international, for pandemic preparedness. Health 853 Tue, 7 Jul 2015 00:00:00 EST Patented Drug Pricing in Canada (New) https://hillnotes.wordpress.com/2016/02/10/patented-drug-pricing-in-canada/ Drug pricing in Canada is an area of shared jurisdiction among federal, provincial and territorial governments. The price of every patented drug, both prescription and non-prescription, sold in Canada is regulated federally through the Patented Medicines Prices Review Board (PMPRB). Health 852 Wed, 10 Feb 2016 00:00:00 EST Post-traumatic Stress Disorder and the Mental Health of Military Personnel and Veterans (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2011-97-e.htm The potential psychological after-effects of involvement in military operations are usually described by the medical term “post-traumatic stress disorder” (PTSD), or the military and police term “operational stress injury.” These after-effects are more difficult to anticipate than physical injuries because they are less visible, reluctantly reported by those who suffer from them, and because the symptoms may only appear years after the traumatic event. Our understanding of the condition is therefore imperfect, and there are no certainties, except for the distress of those affected. Health 672 Fri, 6 Dec 2013 00:00:00 EST The 2009–2010 Medical Isotope Shortage: Cause, Effects and Future Considerations (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2009-04-e.htm# Publication No. 2009-04-E Health 450 Wed, 2 Feb 2011 00:00:00 EST The Canada Health Transfer: Changes to Provincial Allocations (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2011-02-e.htm Publication No. 2011-02E Health 480 Thu, 5 May 2011 00:00:00 EST The Federal Role in Health and Health Care (Modified) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2011-91-e.htm Canadians know that both the provinces and the federal government are involved in matters generally related to health and health care, but there is often confusion in the public's mind about provincial and federal jurisdiction. Part of the uncertainty reflects the distinction between health and health care. Health (in its broadest sense) refers to the desirability of maintaining or achieving a positive state of overall well-being. Health care (in its narrowest sense) refers to medical services offered by physicians and hospitals. The federal government has numerous responsibilities relevant to health, but the provinces are responsible for delivering health care to the majority of Canadians. Health 547 Wed, 20 Feb 2013 00:00:00 EST The Human Papillomavirus Vaccine (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2011-114-e.htm Publication No. 2011-114-E Health 546 Tue, 17 Jan 2012 00:00:00 EST The Regulation of Marijuana under Canadian Law (New) https://hillnotes.wordpress.com/2016/04/26/the-regulation-of-marijuana-under-canadian-law/ Marijuana, otherwise known as cannabis, has been legally prohibited in Canada since 1923. The 2002 report of the Senate Special Committee on Illegal Drugs noted that there was little debate surrounding this addition to the criminal law at the time; as such, the precise motivation for doing so remains unclear. Health 898 Tue, 26 Apr 2016 00:00:00 EST West Nile Virus in Canada (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/prb0911-e.htm PRB 09-11E Health 312 Mon, 31 Aug 2009 00:00:00 EST Government of Canada Responsibilities for Domestic and International Human Rights (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2011-78-e.htm 2011-78-E Human Rights and Freedoms 526 Thu, 15 Sep 2011 00:00:00 EST Prostitution in Canada: International Obligations, Federal Law, and Provincial and Municipal Jurisdiction (Modified) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2011-119-e.htm 2011-119E Human Rights and Freedoms 573 Mon, 30 Apr 2012 00:00:00 EST Sexual Orientation and Legal Rights (Modified) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/prb0849-e.htm PRB 08-49E Human Rights and Freedoms 372 Wed, 24 Feb 2010 00:00:00 EST The Role of the Courts in the Recognition of Language Rights (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/prb0557-e.htm Publication No. 05-57E Human Rights and Freedoms 369 Mon, 26 Apr 2010 00:00:00 EST Assistance for Government-Sponsored Refugees, Chosen Abroad (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2011-94-e.htm 2011-94-E Immigration and Citizenship 533 Mon, 14 Nov 2011 00:00:00 EST Immigration: The Canada–Quebec Accord (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2011-89-e.htm 2011-89-E Immigration and Citizenship 536 Tue, 5 Jul 2011 00:00:00 EST Recognition of the Foreign Qualifications of Immigrants (New) 2004-29E Immigration and Citizenship 574 Mon, 2 Apr 2012 00:00:00 EST Canada's Federal Privacy Laws (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2007-44-e.htm?cat=information This paper will provide an overview of the federal landscape with respect to privacy legislation, its legislative history, and the need for modernization at a time when technology, digitization, social media and concerns about national security and the threat of terrorism are rapidly transforming the way in which personal information is created, accessed, retained and discarded. Information and communications 856 Tue, 1 Oct 2013 00:00:00 EST Canadian Broadcasting Policy (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2011-39-e.htm?cat=information This paper gives a brief history of Canadian broadcasting policy, and looks at the principles of the policy, the role of the system's regulator and other federal organizations, and policies regarding Canadian content. It then discusses some of the technological and structural changes that are creating challenges for the broadcasting policy. This paper also offers some suggestions for further reading. Information and communications 855 Wed, 6 Aug 2014 00:00:00 EST CBC/Radio-Canada: Overview and Key Issues (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2013-92-e.html?cat=information CBC/Radio-Canada (the Corporation) has played a unique role as Canada's national public broadcaster for more than 75 years. Whether by television, radio or Internet, CBC/Radio-Canada is available nearly everywhere across Canada. It is one of the few federal institutions that reach thousands of households across the country daily, a significant presence for a federal institution. However, the Corporation is also the subject of heated debate. Its supporters praise its commitment to Canadian content, while its critics say it presents unfair competition for private broadcasters. Information and communications 831 Thu, 11 Feb 2016 00:00:00 EST Changes in the Canadian Wireless Telecommunications Sector (New) https://hillnotes.wordpress.com/2016/03/23/changes-in-the-canadian-wireless-telecommunications-sector/ In 1993, the last year there was a major revision of the Telecommunications Act, telecommunications consisted mostly of voice communication over landlines. Information and communications 866 Wed, 23 Mar 2016 00:00:00 EST Social Media: An Introduction (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2010-03-e.htm?cat=information This paper gives a brief overview of the evolution and development of social media, looks at how their attributes affect the way people interact online, and considers their potential social and economic impact. Information and communications 857 Tue, 20 Nov 2012 00:00:00 EST Social Media: Who Uses Them? (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2010-05-e.htm?cat=information This paper reviews recent statistics that demonstrate differences in rates of Internet and social media use between older and younger Canadians, men and women, anglophones and francophones, immigrants and native-born Canadians, urban and rural dwellers, and those in the highest and lowest income brackets. Information and communications 858 Tue, 20 Nov 2012 00:00:00 EST Telecommunications and Lawful Access: The Legislative Situation in the United States, the United Kingdom and Australia (Modified) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2005-66-e.htm 2005-66-E Information and communications 613 Mon, 6 Aug 2012 00:00:00 EST Canada and the Trans-Pacific Partnership (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2012-88-e.htm 2012-88-E International affairs and defence 611 Wed, 28 Nov 2012 00:00:00 EST Canada's Defence Procurement Strategy (New) https://hillnotes.wordpress.com/2016/02/25/canadas-defence-procurement-strategy/ In February 2014, the Government of Canada unveiled its Defence Procurement Strategy (DPS), a multi-point plan to reform the Canadian defence procurement system. International affairs and defence 873 Thu, 25 Feb 2016 00:00:00 EST Canada's Relationship with the United States: Living with the Giant (New) https://hillnotes.wordpress.com/2016/02/23/canadas-relationship-with-the-united-states-living-with-the-giant/ As U.S. President John F. Kennedy said about the relationship between Canada and the United States, “Geography has made us neighbours. History has made us friends. Economics has made us partners. And necessity has made us allies.” International affairs and defence 874 Tue, 23 Feb 2016 00:00:00 EST Defence Procurement Organizations: A Global Comparison (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2014-82-e.html?cat=international The surge in global military spending in the context of an unpredictable and volatile international security environment since the terrorist attacks of 11 September 2001 has led governments around the world to pay close attention to the issue of defence procurement. This paper examines some of the different defence procurement organizations now in place in the industrialized world, including in Canada. International affairs and defence 774 Tue, 14 Oct 2014 00:00:00 EST Financial Institutions and Public Accountability Statements (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2013-07-e.htm Hillnote 2013-07-E International affairs and defence 624 Wed, 27 Feb 2013 00:00:00 EST HillNote - Canada and NATO: Key Outcomes from the Warsaw Summit (New) https://hillnotes.wordpress.com/2016/09/26/canada-and-nato-key-outcomes-from-the-warsaw-summit/ On 8 and 9 July 2016, heads of state and government from member states of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) met in Warsaw, Poland, to agree on a collective response to defence and security challenges facing the Alliance. International affairs and defence 921 Tue, 27 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EST Justice for Genocide? A Retrospective on the Work of the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2015-135-e.html?cat=international Created in the aftermath of the Rwandan genocide by the United Nations (UN) Security Council in November 1994 and located in Arusha, Tanzania, the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR) began hearing cases in 1996 and delivered its last appeal judgment in December 2015. More than 20 years after its creation, the ICTR Trial Chamber has rendered 55 first-instance judgments involving 75 individuals. The ICTR Appeals Chamber has, in turn, rendered 47 final judgments in respect of 61 persons. International affairs and defence 826 Thu, 21 Jan 2016 00:00:00 EST Ratifying and Implementing Trade and Investment Treaties in Canada (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2014-16-e.htm Under Canada's constitutional system, the conduct of foreign affairs is a royal prerogative power of the federal Crown. Consequently, the Executive Branch has the exclusive power to negotiate and conclude international treaties. Parliament has the exclusive power to enact legislation to implement those treaties. International affairs and defence 736 Wed, 9 Apr 2014 00:00:00 EST Snapshot: Canadian Veterans (New) https://hillnotes.wordpress.com/2016/02/15/snapshot-canadian-veterans/ This HillNote provides a snapshot of Canadian veterans. It presents some telling statistics and looks at key issues they face, in order to better understand their needs and the existing framework of policies and programs for veterans. International affairs and defence 875 Mon, 15 Feb 2016 00:00:00 EST The Evolution of Defence Procurement in Canada (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2016-09-e.html?cat=international In Canada, defence procurement is a complex process involving several federal government departments and agencies: the Department of National Defence, Public Services and Procurement Canada, Innovation, Science and Economic Development Canada, and the Treasury Board of Canada Secretariat. Each department or agency is responsible for different stages of the defence procurement process. International affairs and defence 851 Thu, 4 Feb 2016 00:00:00 EST The International Criminal Court: History and Role (Modified) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2002-11-e.htm This paper will provide an overview of the development of international criminal law by tracing the historical path to the 1998 United Nations conference in Rome. It then reviews the Rome Statute and the role and functioning of the ICC itself, while providing some discussion of the criticisms facing the court today. International affairs and defence 698 Fri, 28 Jun 2013 00:00:00 EST The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant and the International Response (New) https://hillnotes.wordpress.com/2016/03/15/the-islamic-state-of-iraq-and-the-levant-and-the-international-response/ The so-called Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) – also known as the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS), the Islamic State of Iraq and al-Sham, the Islamic State (IS) and Daesh (in Arabic) – is a militant Sunni jihadist group with transnational ambitions. International affairs and defence 872 Tue, 15 Mar 2016 00:00:00 EST The National Shipbuilding Procurement Strategy: A Five-Year Assessment (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2015-35-e.html?cat=international In June 2010, the federal government unveiled its National Shipbuilding Procurement Strategy (NSPS), a continuous long-term shipbuilding plan to renew the fleets of the Royal Canadian Navy (RCN) and the Canadian Coast Guard (CCG) over the next 20 to 30 years. International affairs and defence 798 Mon, 15 Jun 2015 00:00:00 EST The New Veterans Charter: Developments Since Its Adoption in 2006 (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2015-121-e.html?cat=international On 1 April 2006, the Canadian Forces Members and Veterans Re-establishment and Compensation Act came into force. Commonly known as the New Veterans Charter (NVC), it became the legislative framework for the programs, services and benefits provided to Canadian veterans through Veterans Affairs Canada (VAC). International affairs and defence 827 Fri, 20 Nov 2015 00:00:00 EST 150 Years of Legislative Bilingualism in Canada: Past and Present (New) https://hillnotes.ca/2017/06/22/150-years-of-legislative-bilingualism-in-canada-past-and-present/ Prior to Confederation, there were demands for laws and parliamentary documents to be bilingual in order to guarantee that linguistic minorities could interact with parliamentary institutions in the language of their choice. The 1840 Act of Union had established English as the sole official language of legislation and legislative documents. Law, justice and rights 949 Thu, 22 Jun 2017 00:00:00 EST Are you Ready to Legislate? (New) https://hillnotes.wordpress.com/2016/02/16/are-you-ready-to-legislate/ Government legislation often overshadows the important role played by individual members of Parliament and senators in proposing laws. Since 1910, 278 bills sponsored by MPs and senators have been passed by Parliament, 43 in the 41st Parliament alone. Law, justice and rights 885 Tue, 16 Feb 2016 00:00:00 EST Canada's Approach to the Treaty-Making Process (Modified) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2008-45-e.htm 2008-45-E Law, justice and rights 622 Tue, 6 Nov 2012 00:00:00 EST Canada's Federal Privacy Laws (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2007-44-e.htm Classically understood as the right to be left alone, the concept of privacy in today's high-tech world has taken on many new dimensions. Experts in this area equate privacy with the right to enjoy private space, to conduct private communications, to be free from surveillance and to have the sanctity of one's body respected. To most people, it is essentially about control over what is known about them and by whom. Law, justice and rights 700 Tue, 1 Oct 2013 00:00:00 EST Canadian Anti-hate Laws and Freedom of Expression (Modified) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2010-31-e.htm Publication No. 2010-31E Law, justice and rights 434 Wed, 27 Mar 2013 00:00:00 EST Carter v. Canada: The Supreme Court of Canada's Decision on Assisted Dying (Modified) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2015-47-e.html?cat=law On 6 February 2015, the Supreme Court of Canada released its decision regarding physician-assisted dying in Carter v. Canada (Attorney General). This decision declared that sections 241(b) and 14 of the Criminal Code, which prohibit a physician's assistance in terminating life, infringe upon the right to life, liberty and security of the person for individuals who want access to physician-assisted death. The Court suspended its declaration so that it would not come into effect for 12 months, stating that "it is for Parliament and the provincial legislatures to respond, should they so choose, by enacting legislation consistent with the constitutional parameters set out in [the reasons for judgment]." Law, justice and rights 806 Tue, 29 Dec 2015 00:00:00 EST Current Issues in Mental Health in Canada: Mental Health and the Criminal Justice System (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2013-88-e.htm This paper describes the procedural and legal framework governing people with mental health problems once they are involved in the criminal justice system. It should be noted, however, that individuals living with mental health problems and illnesses are more likely to be victims of violence than perpetrators of it. Most do not come into contact with the criminal justice system at all during their lifetimes. Law, justice and rights 688 Mon, 16 Dec 2013 00:00:00 EST Employment Insurance Premiums: In Search of a Genuine Rate-Setting Process (Modified) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2003-41-e.htm 2003-41-E Law, justice and rights 620 Tue, 15 Jan 2013 00:00:00 EST Euthanasia and Assisted Suicide in Canada (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2015-139-e.html?cat=law Because of advances in medical treatment, people are now able to live longer and to delay death. But the ability to live longer often entails a diminished quality of life for those who suffer from degenerative or incurable diseases. The desire to achieve greater control over decisions relating to life and death has been fuelled by a number of factors, including the wish to be spared from prolonged suffering and a better understanding of how medical technology can prolong life and affect the dying process. These factors have fostered an interest in euthanasia and assisted suicide, both of which are subject to a complete prohibition under Canada's Criminal Code. Law, justice and rights 896 Tue, 15 Dec 2015 00:00:00 EST Euthanasia and Assisted Suicide: The Law in Selected Countries (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2015-116-e.html?cat=law This paper reviews developments in jurisdictions that already permit physician-assisted suicide or euthanasia (or both) in certain contexts, as well as what is happening in the United Kingdom, where there have been a number of developments in this area of the law in recent years. Law, justice and rights 808 Fri, 23 Oct 2015 00:00:00 EST Freedom of Religion and Religious Symbols in the Public Sphere - Revised (Modified) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2011-60-e.htm 2011-60-E Law, justice and rights 498 Tue, 15 Jan 2013 00:00:00 EST Government of Canada Responsibilities for Domestic and International Human Rights (Modified) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2011-78-e.html?cat=law The Government of Canada is responsible for a broad range of domestic and international human rights issues: from ensuring the protection of such fundamental rights as the freedom of speech to reducing discrimination in public sector workplaces, and from promoting equality rights abroad to apprehending war criminals. Federal human rights obligations originate from several sources, including the Canadian Constitution, international treaties, and laws passed by Parliament. As a federal state, Canada has constitutional and international human rights obligations that may be shared or divided with provincial or territorial governments in accordance with the division of powers set out in the Constitution. Law, justice and rights 779 Mon, 1 Dec 2014 00:00:00 EST HillNote - ‘Welfare' of a Nation: The Origins of ‘Peace, Order and Good Government' (New) https://hillnotes.wordpress.com/2017/04/26/welfare-of-a-nation-the-origins-of-peace-order-and-good-government/ Some 150 years ago, Canada's Fathers of Confederation hit upon a phrase that has come to define Parliament's lawmaking authority in relation to the provinces. The phrase “peace, order and good government” is found in the opening to section 91 of the British North America Act, now the Constitution Act, 1867. This provision, commonly referred to as the POGG power, allocates residuary jurisdiction for the areas of law not otherwise set out in sections 91 and 92 to the federal Parliament. Law, justice and rights 942 Wed, 26 Apr 2017 00:00:00 EST Parliament and the Courts: Balancing the Roles (New) https://hillnotes.wordpress.com/2015/12/16/parliament-and-the-courts-balancing-the-roles/ The role of judges and the courts in the evolution of Canadian law must be examined in the Canadian federal and constitutional context. It is closely linked to the role of Parliament and the provincial legislative assemblies (legislative branch). Law, justice and rights 888 Wed, 16 Dec 2015 00:00:00 EST Prostitution in Canada: Overview and options for reform (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2014-23-e.htm Since the Criminal Code came into force in 1892, adult prostitution has not in itself been illegal in Canada, although many activities surrounding prostitution are. Today, provisions relating to prostitution are set out in sections 210 to 213 of the Code. They include the offences of keeping, using or transporting a person to a bawdy-house (brothel); procuring and living on the avails of prostitution; and communicating in public. Law, justice and rights 754 Wed, 4 Jun 2014 00:00:00 EST Same-Sex Marriage, Divorce and Families: Selected Recent Developments (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2013-74-e.htm The first same-sex couple to be legally married in Canada recently celebrated their 10 year wedding anniversary. Despite this milestone, it has not been entirely smooth sailing for same-sex couples and their families since the Supreme Court of Canada first ruled on equality rights in relation to sexual orientation – or even since Parliament passed legislation to make same-sex marriage legal throughout Canada. Law, justice and rights 708 Wed, 28 Aug 2013 00:00:00 EST Section 15 of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms: The Development of the Supreme Court of Canada's Approach to Equality Rights Under the Charter (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2013-83-e.htm?cat=law Section 15 of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms (the Charter) guarantees the equal protection and equal benefit of the law to all Law, justice and rights 761 Wed, 11 Sep 2013 00:00:00 EST Sentencing and the Administration of Sentences: Recent Developments (2011-2015) (New) https://hillnotes.wordpress.com/2016/03/30/sentencing-and-the-administration-of-sentences-recent-developments-2011-2015/ Sentencing tools were much in the spotlight as the Canadian Government continued to promote law-and-order legislation during the 41st Parliament. Law, justice and rights 890 Wed, 30 Mar 2016 00:00:00 EST The "Spanking" Law: Section 43 of the Criminal Code (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2016-35-e.html This paper reviews the content of section 43 and its judicial interpretation by the Supreme Court of Canada, a majority of which upheld the provision as constitutional in 2004. It then discusses past proposals to repeal the section, and the legal effects that such a repeal would have, given the definition of assault in Canada's Criminal Code and the availability of common law defences. Finally, public opinion on abolishing section 43, research regarding the effects of physical punishment and international perspectives on the issue are briefly examined. Law, justice and rights 924 Tue, 4 Oct 2016 00:00:00 EST The Counter-Terrorism Framework in Canada (New) https://hillnotes.wordpress.com/2016/04/19/the-counter-terrorism-framework-in-canada/ Canada is not immune to terrorism. According to Global Affairs Canada, a number of international and domestic terrorist groups are present in Canada. Some are engaged in terrorist activity here, while others are active beyond our border. Law, justice and rights 895 Tue, 19 Apr 2016 00:00:00 EST The General Social Survey: A Way to Track Unreported Crime – an update (New) https://hillnotes.wordpress.com/2016/02/11/the-general-social-survey-a-way-to-track-unreported-crime-an-update/ For many years, statistics provided by police were considered the most reliable way to measure crime rates, because they were generally believed to accurately reflect all crime. However, in the 1960s and 1970s, research showed that a large portion of crime – crime that went unreported – escaped the attention of the police. Law, justice and rights 886 Thu, 11 Feb 2016 00:00:00 EST The Legal Regulation of Marijuana in Canada and Selected Other Countries (New) This document discusses the legal regulation of marijuana in Canada and in a number of other jurisdictions. After some material on marijuana itself, it provides an overview of the international drug control regime, including current debates surrounding the possible reform of this regime and the outcomes of the 2016 United Nations General Assembly Special Session on the World Drug Problem, which took place in April 2016. The document then turns to the legal treatment of marijuana in Canada, including the prevalence of use of marijuana in this country. It then examines different regulation approaches - including legalization and decriminalization - in a number of jurisdictions. Law, justice and rights 925 Tue, 6 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EST The Regulation of Marijuana under Canadian Law (New) https://hillnotes.wordpress.com/2016/04/26/the-regulation-of-marijuana-under-canadian-law/ Marijuana, otherwise known as cannabis, has been legally prohibited in Canada since 1923. The 2002 report of the Senate Special Committee on Illegal Drugs noted that there was little debate surrounding this addition to the criminal law at the time; as such, the precise motivation for doing so remains unclear. Law, justice and rights 897 Tue, 26 Apr 2016 00:00:00 EST The Role of the Supreme Court of Canada – Membership and the Nomination Process (New) https://hillnotes.wordpress.com/2015/12/15/the-role-of-the-supreme-court-of-canada-membership-and-the-nomination-process/ The Supreme Court of Canada was created by Statute in 1875 and since that time its membership and nomination process have evolved considerably. Law, justice and rights 889 Tue, 15 Dec 2015 00:00:00 EST The United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities: An Overview (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2013-09-e.htm 2013-09 Law, justice and rights 641 Wed, 27 Feb 2013 00:00:00 EST Trafficking in Persons (Modified) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2011-59-e.htm This paper will discuss the concept of trafficking in general terms and provide an overview of the legislative framework surrounding the issue at the international level and within the Canadian context. It will conclude with a discussion of potential gaps in Canadian legislation and policy with respect to trafficking in persons. Law, justice and rights 499 Mon, 30 Sep 2013 00:00:00 EST Trafficking in Persons (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2011-59-e.html?cat=law This paper will discuss the concept of trafficking in general terms and provide an overview of the legislative framework surrounding the issue at the international level and within the Canadian context. It will conclude with a discussion of potential gaps in Canadian legislation and policy with respect to trafficking in persons. Law, justice and rights 887 Fri, 15 Jan 2016 00:00:00 EST Trafficking in Persons (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2011-59-e.html?cat=law Trafficking in persons has become one of the most pressing issues in global migration policy. The illegal transportation and harbouring of people for the purposes of forced service and other forms of exploitation is a violation of internationally and domestically recognized human rights. Law, justice and rights 830 Sat, 17 Mar 2012 00:00:00 EST Unreasonable Delays in Criminal Trials: New Legal Framework (New) https://hillnotes.wordpress.com/2016/08/17/unreasonable-delays-in-criminal-trials-new-legal-framework/ This HillNote summarizes the law that has been used since the early 1990s and describes the new framework set out by the Supreme Court in the Jordan ruling. Law, justice and rights 913 Wed, 17 Aug 2016 00:00:00 EST Bill C-2: An Act to amend the Income Tax Act (New) https://lop.parl.ca/About/Parliament/LegislativeSummaries/bills_ls.asp?ls=c2&Parl=42&Ses=1&source=library_prb&Language=E Bill C-2, An Act to amend the Income Tax Act, was introduced in the House of Commons on 9 December 2015 by the Minister of Finance, the Honourable Bill Morneau. Legislative Summaries 813 Mon, 11 Jan 2016 00:00:00 EST Eliminating Pardons for Serious Crimes Act (New) https://lop.parl.ca/About/Parliament/LegislativeSummaries/bills_ls.asp?Language=E&Language=E&ls=c23b&source=library_prb&Parl=40&Ses=3 Legislative Summary of Bill C-23B Legislative Summaries 430 Wed, 13 Oct 2010 00:00:00 EST Ending House Arrest for Property and Other Serious Crimes by Serious and Violent Offenders Act (New) https://lop.parl.ca/About/Parliament/LegislativeSummaries/bills_ls.asp?Language=E&Language=E&ls=c16&source=library_prb&Parl=40&Ses=3 Legislative Summary of Bill C-16 Legislative Summaries 375 Wed, 28 Apr 2010 00:00:00 EST Fair and Efficient Criminal Trials Act (New) https://lop.parl.ca/About/Parliament/LegislativeSummaries/bills_ls.asp?Language=E&ls=c53&source=library_prb&Parl=40&Ses=3 Legislative Summary of Bill C-53 Legislative Summaries 477 Thu, 31 Mar 2011 00:00:00 EST Increasing Offenders' Accountability for Victims Act (Modified) https://lop.parl.ca/About/Parliament/LegislativeSummaries/bills_ls.asp?ls=c37&Parl=41&Ses=1&source=library_prb&Language=E Legislative Summary of Bill C-37 Legislative Summaries 599 Thu, 11 Apr 2013 00:00:00 EST Investigating and Preventing Criminal Electronic Communications Act (New) https://lop.parl.ca/About/Parliament/LegislativeSummaries/bills_ls.asp?Language=E&ls=c52&Parl=40&Ses=3&source=library_prb Legislative Summary of Bill C-52 Legislative Summaries 508 Mon, 30 May 2011 00:00:00 EST Legislative Summary of Bill C-10: An Act to amend the Air Canada Public Participation Act and to provide for certain other measures (New) https://lop.parl.ca/About/Parliament/LegislativeSummaries/bills_ls.asp?ls=c10&Parl=42&Ses=1&source=library_prb&Language=E Bill C-10, An Act to amend the Air Canada Public Participation Act and to provide for certain other measures, was introduced by the Minister of Transport and received first reading in the House of Commons on 24 March 2016. Legislative Summaries 903 Tue, 26 Apr 2016 00:00:00 EST Legislative Summary of Bill C-14: An Act to amend the Criminal Code and to make related amendments to other Acts (medical assistance in dying) (New) https://lop.parl.ca/About/Parliament/LegislativeSummaries/bills_ls.asp?ls=c14&Parl=42&Ses=1&source=library_prb&Language=E Bill C-14, An Act to amend the Criminal Code and to make related amendments to other Acts (medical assistance in dying) was introduced in the House of Commons on 14 April 2016 by the Honourable Jody Wilson-Raybould, Minister of Justice. The bill sets out the requirements for the provision of medical assistance in dying (MAID) and establishes exemptions to various Criminal Code offences for physicians, nurse practitioners, pharmacists and certain other persons who provide or assist in the provision of MAID. Legislative Summaries 906 Thu, 21 Apr 2016 00:00:00 EST Legislative Summary of Bill C-15: An Act to Implement Certain Provisions of the Budget Tabled in Parliament on March 22, 2016 and other Measures (New) https://lop.parl.ca/About/Parliament/LegislativeSummaries/bills_ls.asp?ls=c15&Parl=42&Ses=1&source=library_prb&Language=E Bill C-15, An Act to implement certain provisions of the budget tabled in Parliament on March 22, 2016 and other measures (short title: Budget Implementation Act, 2016, No. 1), was introduced and read for the first time in the House of Commons on 20 April 2016. Legislative Summaries 919 Wed, 27 Apr 2016 00:00:00 EST Legislative Summary of Bill C-16: An Act to amend the Canadian Human Rights Act and the Criminal Code (New) https://lop.parl.ca/About/Parliament/LegislativeSummaries/bills_ls.asp?ls=c16&Parl=42&Ses=1&source=library_prb&Language=E Bill C-16, An Act to amend the Canadian Human Rights Act and the Criminal Code, was introduced in the House of Commons on 17 May 2016 by the Minister of Justice, the Honourable Jody Wilson-Raybould. Legislative Summaries 933 Fri, 21 Oct 2016 00:00:00 EST Legislative Summary of Bill C-17: An Act to amend the Yukon Environmental and Socio-economic Assessment Act and to make a consequential amendment to another Act (New) https://lop.parl.ca/About/Parliament/LegislativeSummaries/bills_ls.asp?Language=E&ls=c17&Parl=42&Ses=1&source=library_prb Bill C-17, An Act to amend the Yukon Environmental and Socio-economic Assessment Act and to make a consequential amendment to another Act, was introduced in the House of Commons on 8 June 2016 by the Minister of Indigenous and Northern Affairs. Legislative Summaries 923 Wed, 28 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EST Legislative Summary of Bill C-18: An Act to amend the Rouge National Urban Park Act, the Parks Canada Agency Act and the Canada National Parks Act (New) https://lop.parl.ca/About/Parliament/LegislativeSummaries/bills_ls.asp?ls=c18&Parl=42&Ses=1&source=library_prb&Language=E This bill makes three distinct changes. It amends the Rouge National Urban Park Act to accord the same level of ecological protection to the Rouge National Urban Park as is currently accorded to Canada's national parks, and it expands the park. Second, the bill amends the Parks Canada Agency Act to allow the New Parks and Historic Sites Account to be used for national parks and historic sites that have attained full operational status. Third, it amends the Canada National Parks Act to change the boundary of Wood Buffalo National Park in northern Alberta. Legislative Summaries 918 Mon, 26 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EST Legislative Summary of Bill C-18: Increasing Voter Participation Act (New) https://lop.parl.ca/About/Parliament/LegislativeSummaries/bills_ls.asp?Language=E&lang=F&ls=c18&source=library_prb&Parl=40&Ses=3 Publication No. 40-3-C18E Legislative Summaries 376 Mon, 10 May 2010 00:00:00 EST Legislative Summary of Bill C-19: An Act to amend the Criminal Code and the Firearms Act (New) https://lop.parl.ca/About/Parliament/LegislativeSummaries/bills_ls.asp?Language=E&ls=c19&Parl=41&Ses=1&source=library_prb Publication No. 41-1-C19-E Legislative Summaries 527 Tue, 15 Nov 2011 00:00:00 EST Legislative Summary of Bill C-2: An Act to amend the Controlled Drugs and Substances Act (New) https://lop.parl.ca/About/Parliament/LegislativeSummaries/bills_ls.asp?ls=c2&Parl=41&Ses=2&source=library_prb&Language=E 41-2-C2-E Legislative Summaries 665 Mon, 4 Nov 2013 00:00:00 EST Legislative Summary of Bill C-2: Canada–Colombia Free Trade Agreement Implementation Act (Modified) https://lop.parl.ca/About/Parliament/LegislativeSummaries/bills_ls.asp?Language=E&Language=E&ls=c2&source=library_prb&Parl=40&Ses=3 No. 40-3-C2E Legislative Summaries 373 Thu, 12 Aug 2010 00:00:00 EST Legislative Summary of Bill C-20: An Action Plan for the National Capital Commission (Modified) https://lop.parl.ca/About/Parliament/LegislativeSummaries/bills_ls.asp?Language=E&Language=E&ls=c20&source=library_prb&Parl=40&Ses=3 Legislative Summary of Bill C-20 Legislative Summaries 402 Tue, 27 Sep 2011 00:00:00 EST Legislative Summary of Bill C-21: An Act to amend the Criminal Code (sentencing for fraud) (Modified) https://lop.parl.ca/About/Parliament/LegislativeSummaries/bills_ls.asp?Language=E&ls=c21&source=library_prb&Parl=40&Ses=3 Publication No. 40-3-C21E Legislative Summaries 384 Thu, 24 Feb 2011 00:00:00 EST Legislative Summary of Bill C-21: An Act to control the administrative burden that regulations impose on businesses (New) https://lop.parl.ca/About/Parliament/LegislativeSummaries/bills_ls.asp?ls=c21&Parl=41&Ses=2&source=library_prb&Language=E Bill C-21, An Act to control the administrative burden that regulations impose on businesses (short title: Red Tape Reduction Act), was introduced and received first reading in the House of Commons on 29 January 2014. Legislative Summaries 721 Thu, 6 Feb 2014 00:00:00 EST Legislative Summary of Bill C-22: An Act respecting Canada's offshore oil and gas operations, enacting the Nuclear Liability and Compensation Act, repealing the Nuclear Liability Act and making consequential amendments to other Acts - Revised (Modified) https://lop.parl.ca/About/Parliament/LegislativeSummaries/bills_ls.asp?ls=c22&Parl=41&Ses=2&source=library_prb&Language=E Bill C-22, An Act respecting Canada's offshore oil and gas operations, enacting the Nuclear Liability and Compensation Act, repealing the Nuclear Liability Act and making consequential amendments to other Acts (short title: Energy Safety and Security Act) was introduced by the Minister of Natural Resources and received first reading in the House of Commons on 30 January 2014. Legislative Summaries 755 Fri, 13 Jun 2014 00:00:00 EST Legislative Summary of Bill C-22: An Act respecting the mandatory reporting of Internet child pornography by persons who provide an Internet service (Modified) https://lop.parl.ca/About/Parliament/LegislativeSummaries/bills_ls.asp?Language=E&Language=E&ls=c22&source=library_prb&Parl=40&Ses=3 No. 40-3-C22E Legislative Summaries 381 Tue, 15 Feb 2011 00:00:00 EST Legislative Summary of Bill C-22: An Act to establish the National Security and Intelligence Committee of Parliamentarians and to make consequential amendments to certain Acts (New) https://lop.parl.ca/About/Parliament/LegislativeSummaries/bills_ls.asp?ls=c22&Parl=42&Ses=1&source=library_prb&Language=E Bill C-22, An Act to establish the National Security and Intelligence Committee of Parliamentarians and to make consequential amendments to certain Acts was introduced in the House of Commons on 16 June 2016. Legislative Summaries 934 Mon, 22 Aug 2016 00:00:00 EST Legislative Summary of Bill C-23: An Act to amend the Canada Elections Act and other Acts and to make consequential amendments to certain Acts (Modified) https://lop.parl.ca/About/Parliament/LegislativeSummaries/bills_ls.asp?ls=c23&Parl=41&Ses=2&source=library_prb&Language=E Bill C-23, An Act to amend the Canada Elections Act and other Acts and to make consequential amendments to certain Acts (short title: Fair Elections Act) was introduced in the House of Commons by the Minister of State (Democratic Reform), the Honourable Pierre Poilievre, and received first reading on 4 February 2014. Legislative Summaries 757 Fri, 16 May 2014 00:00:00 EST Legislative Summary of Bill C-23: An Act to amend the Canada Elections Act and other Acts and to make consequential amendments to certain Acts (New) https://lop.parl.ca/About/Parliament/LegislativeSummaries/bills_ls.asp?ls=c23&Parl=41&Ses=2&source=library_prb&Language=E Bill C-23, An Act to amend the Canada Elections Act and other Acts and to make consequential amendments to certain Acts (short title: Fair Elections Act) was introduced in the House of Commons by the Minister of State (Democratic Reform), the Honourable Pierre Poilievre, and received first reading on 4 February 2014. Legislative Summaries 739 Mon, 24 Feb 2014 00:00:00 EST Legislative Summary of Bill C-238: An Act respecting the development of a national strategy for the safe disposal of lamps containing mercury (Modified) https://lop.parl.ca/About/Parliament/LegislativeSummaries/bills_ls.asp?ls=c238&Parl=42&Ses=1&source=library_prb&Language=E Bill C-238, An Act respecting the development of a national strategy for the safe disposal of lamps containing mercury (short title: National Strategy for Safe Disposal of Lamps Containing Mercury Act) was introduced in the House of Commons on 25 February 2016 by Member of Parliament Darren Fisher. The bill would require the Minister of the Environment, in cooperation with other parties, to develop and implement a national strategy for the safe disposal of lamps containing mercury (i.e., compact and tube fluorescent light bulbs). Legislative Summaries 922 Wed, 2 Nov 2016 00:00:00 EST Legislative Summary of Bill C-24: An Act to amend the Citizenship Act and to make consequential amendments to other Acts (New) https://lop.parl.ca/About/Parliament/LegislativeSummaries/bills_ls.asp?ls=c24&Parl=41&Ses=2&source=library_prb&Language=E Bill C-24, An Act to amend the Citizenship Act and to make consequential amendments to other Acts (short title: Strengthening Canadian Citizenship Act), was introduced in the House of Commons by the Minister of the Environment for the Minister of Citizenship and Immigration on 6 February 2014. The bill makes substantial changes to legislative provisions connected with Canadian citizenship in the areas of eligibility requirements, security and fraud, and application processing and review of decisions. Legislative Summaries 747 Wed, 5 Mar 2014 00:00:00 EST Legislative Summary of Bill C-24: An Act to amend the Salaries Act and to make a consequential amendment to the Financial Administration Act (New) https://lop.parl.ca/About/Parliament/LegislativeSummaries/bills_ls.asp?ls=c24&Parl=42&Ses=1&source=library_prb&Language=E Bill C-24, An Act to amend the Salaries Act and to make a consequential amendment to the Financial Administration Act, was introduced in the House of Commons by the Leader of the Government in the House of Commons on 27 September 2016. Legislative Summaries 929 Fri, 30 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EST Legislative Summary of Bill C-24: First Nations Certainty of Land Title Act (New) https://lop.parl.ca/About/Parliament/LegislativeSummaries/bills_ls.asp?Language=E&Language=E&ls=c24&source=library_prb&Parl=40&Ses=3 Legislative Summary of Bill C-24 Legislative Summaries 397 Wed, 2 Jun 2010 00:00:00 EST Legislative Summary of Bill C-26: short title: Tougher Penalties for Child Predators Act (New) https://lop.parl.ca/About/Parliament/LegislativeSummaries/bills_ls.asp?ls=c26&Parl=41&Ses=2&source=library_prb&Language=E Bill C-26, (short title: Tougher Penalties for Child Predators Act) was introduced in the House of Commons by the Minister of Justice on 26 February 2014. The bill amends the provisions of the Criminal Code that deal with sexual offences committed against children and young persons by increasing the mandatory minimum penalties and maximum penalties for such offences. Legislative Summaries 746 Legislative Summary of Bill C-26: The Citizen's Arrest and Self-defence Act (Modified) https://lop.parl.ca/About/Parliament/LegislativeSummaries/bills_ls.asp?Language=E&ls=c26&Parl=41&Ses=1&source=library_prb 41-1-C26-E Legislative Summaries 485 Tue, 8 May 2012 00:00:00 EST Legislative Summary of Bill C-27: An Act to amend the Canadian Wheat Board Act (New) https://lop.parl.ca/About/Parliament/LegislativeSummaries/bills_ls.asp?Language=E&Language=E&ls=c27&source=library_prb&Parl=40&Ses=3 Legislative Summary of Bill C-27 Legislative Summaries 417 Wed, 8 Sep 2010 00:00:00 EST Legislative Summary of Bill C-27: An Act to amend the Public Service Employment Act (enhancing hiring opportunities for certain serving and former members of the Canadian Forces) (New) https://lop.parl.ca/About/Parliament/LegislativeSummaries/bills_ls.asp?Language=E&ls=c27&Parl=41&Ses=2&source=library_prb Bill C-27: An Act to amend the Public Service Employment Act (enhancing hiring opportunities for certain serving and former members of the Canadian Forces) (short title: Veterans Hiring Act) was introduced in the House of Commons on 4 March 2014 by the Leader of the Government in the House of Commons, the Honourable Peter Van Loan, on behalf of the Minister of Veterans Affairs, the Honourable Julian Fantino. Legislative Summaries 758 Fri, 9 May 2014 00:00:00 EST Legislative Summary of Bill C-27: An Act to enhance the financial accountability and transparency of First Nations (Modified) https://lop.parl.ca/About/Parliament/LegislativeSummaries/bills_ls.asp?ls=c27&Parl=41&Ses=1&source=library_prb&Language=E Publication No. 41-1-C27-E Legislative Summaries 549 Mon, 7 Jan 2013 00:00:00 EST Legislative Summary of Bill C-28: An Act to amend the Financial Consumer Agency of Canada Act (New) https://lop.parl.ca/About/Parliament/LegislativeSummaries/bills_ls.asp?Language=E&ls=c28&Parl=41&Ses=1&source=library_prb Legislative Summary of Bill C-28 Legislative Summaries 571 Mon, 7 May 2012 00:00:00 EST Legislative Summary of Bill C-29: An Act to amend the Personal Information Protection and Electronic Documents Act (New) https://lop.parl.ca/About/Parliament/LegislativeSummaries/bills_ls.asp?Language=E&Language=E&ls=c29&source=library_prb&Parl=40&Ses=3 Legislative Summary of Bill C-29 Legislative Summaries 418 Fri, 17 Sep 2010 00:00:00 EST Legislative Summary of Bill C-3 (Modified) https://lop.parl.ca/About/Parliament/LegislativeSummaries/bills_ls.asp?ls=c3&Parl=41&Ses=2&source=library_prb&Language=E Bill C-3, An Act to enact the Aviation Industry Indemnity Act, to amend the Aeronautics Act, the Canada Marine Act, the Marine Liability Act and the Canada Shipping Act, 2001 and to make consequential amendments to other Acts (short title: Safeguarding Canada's Seas and Skies Act) was introduced in the House of Commons by the Minister of Transport on 18 October 2013. Legislative Summaries 719 Sun, 2 Feb 2014 00:00:00 EST Legislative Summary of Bill C-30: An Act to amend the Canada Grain Act and the Canada Transportation Act and to provide for other measures (New) https://lop.parl.ca/About/Parliament/LegislativeSummaries/bills_ls.asp?ls=c30&Parl=41&Ses=2&source=library_prb&Language=E Bill C-30, An Act to amend the Canada Grain Act and the Canada Transportation Act and to provide for other measures (short title: Fair Rail for Grain Farmers Act) was introduced in the House of Commons by the Minister of Agriculture and Agri-Food and read for the first time on 26 March 2014. Legislative Summaries 748 Legislative Summary of Bill C-31: An Act to amend the Immigration and Refugee Protection Act, the Balanced Refugee Reform Act, the Marine Transportation Security Act and the Department of Citizenship and Immigration Act (New) https://lop.parl.ca/About/Parliament/LegislativeSummaries/bills_ls.asp?Language=E&ls=c31&Parl=41&Ses=1&source=library_prb Publication no 41-1-C31-E Legislative Summaries 567 Wed, 4 Apr 2012 00:00:00 EST Legislative Summary of Bill C-31: An Act to implement certain provisions of the budget tabled in Parliament on February 11, 2014 and other measures (New) https://lop.parl.ca/About/Parliament/LegislativeSummaries/bills_ls.asp?ls=c31&Parl=41&Ses=2&source=library_prb&Language=E Bill C-31, An Act to implement certain provisions of the budget tabled in Parliament on February 11, 2014 and other measures (short title: Economic Action Plan 2014 Act, No. 1) was introduced by the Minister of Finance and read for the first time in the House of Commons on 28 March 2014. Legislative Summaries 764 Mon, 14 Apr 2014 00:00:00 EST Legislative Summary of Bill C-32: An Act related to the repeal of section 159 of the Criminal Code (New) https://lop.parl.ca/About/Parliament/LegislativeSummaries/bills_ls.asp?ls=c32&Parl=42&Ses=1&source=library_prb&Language=E Bill C-32, An Act related to the repeal of section 159 of the Criminal Code, was introduced in the House of Commons on 15 November 2016 by the Minister of Justice, the Honourable Jody Wilson Raybould. Legislative Summaries 938 Wed, 11 Jan 2017 00:00:00 EST Legislative Summary of Bill C-32: An Act to Amend the Civil Marriage Act (New) https://lop.parl.ca/About/Parliament/LegislativeSummaries/bills_ls.asp?ls=c32&Parl=41&Ses=1&source=library_prb&Language=E Legislative Summary of Bill C-32 Legislative Summaries 569 Tue, 24 Apr 2012 00:00:00 EST Legislative Summary of Bill C-32: An Act to amend the Copyright Act (New) https://lop.parl.ca/About/Parliament/LegislativeSummaries/bills_ls.asp?Language=E&lang=F&ls=c32&source=library_prb&Parl=40&Ses=3 Legislative Summary of Bill C-32 Legislative Summaries 420 Mon, 20 Sep 2010 00:00:00 EST Legislative Summary of Bill C-32: An Act to enact the Canadian Victims Bill of Rights and to amend certain Acts (Modified) https://lop.parl.ca/About/Parliament/LegislativeSummaries/bills_ls.asp?ls=c32&Parl=41&Ses=2&source=library_prb&Language=E Bill C-32: An Act to enact the Canadian Victims Bill of Rights and to amend certain Acts (short title: “Victims Bill of Rights Act”) was introduced in the House of Commons on 3 April 2014 by the Minister of Justice and Attorney General of Canada, the Honourable Peter MacKay. The bill was introduced after a process of online consultations, as well as in-person consultations in 16 cities across the country. Legislative Summaries 778 Thu, 18 Dec 2014 00:00:00 EST Legislative Summary of Bill C-32: An Act to enact the Canadian Victims Bill of Rights and to amend certain Acts (New) https://lop.parl.ca/About/Parliament/LegislativeSummaries/bills_ls.asp?ls=c32&Parl=41&Ses=2&source=library_prb&Language=E Bill C-32: An Act to enact the Canadian Victims Bill of Rights and to amend certain Acts (short title: “Victims Bill of Rights Act”) was introduced in the House of Commons on 3 April 2014 by the Minister of Justice and Attorney General of Canada, the Honourable Peter MacKay. The bill was introduced after a process of online consultations, as well as in-person consultations in 16 cities across the country. Legislative Summaries 773 Wed, 23 Jul 2014 00:00:00 EST Legislative Summary of Bill C-33: First Nations Control of First Nations Education Act (New) https://lop.parl.ca/About/Parliament/LegislativeSummaries/bills_ls.asp?Language=E&ls=c33&Parl=41&Ses=2&source=library_prb Bill C-33, An Act to establish a framework to enable First Nations control of elementary and secondary education and to provide for related funding and to make related amendments to the Indian Act and consequential amendments to other Acts (short title: First Nations Control of First Nations Education Act), was introduced in the House of Commons by the Minister of Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development on 10 April 2014. Legislative Summaries 751 Mon, 28 Apr 2014 00:00:00 EST Legislative Summary of Bill C-35: An Act to amend the Immigration and Refugee Protection Act (New) https://lop.parl.ca/About/Parliament/LegislativeSummaries/bills_ls.asp?Language=E&ls=c35&source=library_prb&Parl=40&Ses=3 Publication No. 40-3-C35E Legislative Summaries 458 Fri, 25 Feb 2011 00:00:00 EST Legislative Summary of Bill C-36: An Act respecting the safety of consumer products (New) https://lop.parl.ca/About/Parliament/LegislativeSummaries/bills_ls.asp?Language=E&ls=c36&source=library_prb&Parl=40&Ses=3 Legislative Summary of Bill C-36 Legislative Summaries 415 Wed, 14 Jul 2010 00:00:00 EST Legislative Summary of Bill C-36: An Act to amend the Criminal Code (Elder Abuse) (New) https://lop.parl.ca/About/Parliament/LegislativeSummaries/bills_ls.asp?ls=c36&Parl=41&Ses=1&source=library_prb&Language=E 41-1-C36E Legislative Summaries 575 Thu, 26 Apr 2012 00:00:00 EST Legislative Summary of Bill C-36: An Act to amend the Criminal Code in response to the Supreme Court of Canada decision in Attorney General of Canada v. Bedford and to make consequential amendments to other Acts (New) https://lop.parl.ca/About/Parliament/LegislativeSummaries/bills_ls.asp?ls=c36&Parl=41&Ses=2&source=library_prb&Language=E Bill C-36, An Act to amend the Criminal Code in response to the Supreme Court of Canada decision in Attorney General of Canada v. Bedford and to make consequential amendments to other Acts (short title: Protection of Communities and Exploited Persons Act) was introduced in the House of Commons on 4 June 2014 by the Honourable Peter Mackay, Minister of Justice and Attorney General of Canada. Legislative Summaries 765 Fri, 18 Jul 2014 00:00:00 EST Legislative Summary of Bill C-36: An Act to amend the Criminal Code in response to the Supreme Court of Canada decision in Attorney General of Canada v. Bedford and to make consequential amendments to other Acts (New) https://lop.parl.ca/About/Parliament/LegislativeSummaries/bills_ls.asp?ls=c36&Parl=41&Ses=2&source=library_prb&Language=E Bill C-36, An Act to amend the Criminal Code in response to the Supreme Court of Canada decision in Attorney General of Canada v. Bedford and to make consequential amendments to other Acts (short title: Protection of Communities and Exploited Persons Act) was introduced in the House of Commons on 4 June 2014 by the Honourable Peter Mackay, Minister of Justice and Attorney General of Canada. Legislative Summaries 766 Fri, 18 Jul 2014 00:00:00 EST Legislative Summary of Bill C-37: An Act to amend the Citizenship Act and to make consequential amendments to another Act (New) https://lop.parl.ca/About/Parliament/LegislativeSummaries/bills_ls.asp?Language=E&ls=c37&Parl=40&Ses=3&source=library_prb Publication No. 40-3-C37-E Legislative Summaries 541 Tue, 10 Jan 2012 00:00:00 EST Legislative Summary of Bill C-38: An Act to amend An Act to amend the Criminal Code (exploitation and trafficking in persons) (New) https://lop.parl.ca/About/Parliament/LegislativeSummaries/bills_ls.asp?ls=c38&Parl=42&Ses=1&source=library_prb&Language=E Bill C-38, An Act to amend An Act to amend the Criminal Code (exploitation and trafficking in persons), was introduced in the House of Commons on 9 February 2017 by the Minister of Justice and Attorney General of Canada, the Honourable Jody Wilson Raybould. The bill implements most of the provisions contained in former Bill C-452, An Act to amend the Criminal Code (exploitation and trafficking in persons), a private member's bill introduced in the House of Commons on 16 October 2012 by Maria Mourani, MP. Legislative Summaries 943 Thu, 4 May 2017 00:00:00 EST Legislative Summary of Bill C-38: An Act to amend the Royal Canadian Mounted Police Act and to make consequential amendments to other Acts (New) https://lop.parl.ca/About/Parliament/LegislativeSummaries/bills_ls.asp?Language=E&ls=c38&source=library_prb&Parl=40&Ses=3 Legislative Summary of Bill C-38 Legislative Summaries 443 Fri, 3 Dec 2010 00:00:00 EST Legislative Summary of Bill C-39: An Act to amend the Corrections and Conditional Release Act and to make consequential amendments to other Acts (Modified) https://lop.parl.ca/About/Parliament/LegislativeSummaries/bills_ls.asp?Language=E&Language=E&ls=c39&source=library_prb&Parl=40&Ses=3 Legislative Summary of Bill C-39 Legislative Summaries 433 Mon, 26 Sep 2011 00:00:00 EST Legislative Summary of Bill C-39: An Act to amend the Criminal Code (unconstitutional provisions) and to make consequential amendments to other Acts (New) https://lop.parl.ca/About/Parliament/LegislativeSummaries/bills_ls.asp?ls=c39&Parl=42&Ses=1&source=library_prb&Language=E Bill C-39, An Act to amend the Criminal Code (unconstitutional provisions) and to make consequential amendments to other Acts, was introduced in the House of Commons by the Minister of Justice on 8 March 2017. Legislative Summaries 951 Mon, 5 Jun 2017 00:00:00 EST Legislative Summary of Bill C-4: A second Act to implement certain provisions of the budget tabled in Parliament on March 21, 2013 and other measures (New) https://lop.parl.ca/About/Parliament/LegislativeSummaries/bills_ls.asp?ls=c4&Parl=41&Ses=2&source=library_prb&Language=E The purpose of Bill C-4 is to implement the general budgetary policy of the Government presented to the House of Commons on 21 March 2013. Bill C-4 is the second implementation bill in relation to the March 2013 budget. The first, Bill C-60, the Economic Action Plan 2013 Act, No. 1, received Royal Assent on 26 June 2013. The implementation of the government's budgetary policy through two distinct legislative proposals, one presented shortly after the budget speech in the spring, and the other presented later in the fall, is in line with established legislative practice. Legislative Summaries 767 Tue, 29 Oct 2013 00:00:00 EST Legislative Summary of Bill C-4: An Act to amend the Canada Labour Code, the Parliamentary Employment and Staff Relations Act, the Public Service Labour Relations Act and the Income Tax Act (New) https://lop.parl.ca/About/Parliament/LegislativeSummaries/bills_ls.asp?ls=c4&Parl=42&Ses=1&source=library_prb&Language=E Bill C-4, An Act to amend the Canada Labour Code, the Parliamentary Employment and Staff Relations Act, the Public Service Labour Relations Act and the Income Tax Act, was introduced in the House of Commons on 28 January 2016 by the Honourable MaryAnn Mihychuk, Minister of Employment, Workforce Development and Labour. Legislative Summaries 825 Tue, 9 Feb 2016 00:00:00 EST Legislative Summary of Bill C-4: An Act to amend the Immigration and Refugee Protection Act, the Balanced Refugee Reform Act and the Marine Transportation Security Act (New) https://lop.parl.ca/About/Parliament/LegislativeSummaries/bills_ls.asp?Language=E&ls=c4&Parl=41&Ses=1&source=library_prb Legislative Summary of Bill C-4 Legislative Summaries 507 Thu, 22 Sep 2011 00:00:00 EST Legislative Summary of Bill C-4: An Act to Amend the Youth Criminal Justice Act and to Make Consequential and Related Amendments to Other Acts (Modified) https://lop.parl.ca/About/Parliament/LegislativeSummaries/bills_ls.asp?Language=E&ls=c4&source=library_prb&Parl=40&Ses=3 No. 40-3-C4E Legislative Summaries 368 Fri, 13 May 2011 00:00:00 EST Legislative Summary of Bill C-40: An Act respecting the Rouge National Urban Park (New) https://lop.parl.ca/About/Parliament/LegislativeSummaries/bills_ls.asp?ls=c40&Parl=41&Ses=2&source=library_prb&Language=E Bill C-40, An Act respecting the Rouge National Urban Park (short title: Rouge National Urban Park Act) was introduced on behalf of the Minister of the Environment in the House of Commons on 13 June 2014. Rather than amend the Canada National Parks Act to establish Rouge Park as a national park, the bill creates a new stand-alone Act establishing Rouge National Urban Park, a new type of federal protected area. Legislative Summaries 770 Fri, 18 Jul 2014 00:00:00 EST Legislative Summary of Bill C-41: An Act to amend the National Defence Act and to make consequential amendments to other Acts (New) https://lop.parl.ca/About/Parliament/LegislativeSummaries/bills_ls.asp?Language=E&Language=E&ls=c41&source=library_prb&Parl=40&Ses=3 Publication No. 40-3-C41E Legislative Summaries 451 Fri, 4 Feb 2011 00:00:00 EST Legislative Summary of Bill C-42: An Act to amend the Aeronautics Act (Modified) https://lop.parl.ca/About/Parliament/LegislativeSummaries/bills_ls.asp?Language=E&ls=c42&source=library_prb&Parl=40&Ses=3 Legislative Summary of Bill C-42 Legislative Summaries 419 Tue, 8 Mar 2011 00:00:00 EST Legislative Summary of Bill C-42: An Act to amend the Firearms Act and the Criminal Code and to make a related amendment and a consequential amendment to other Acts (Modified) https://lop.parl.ca/About/Parliament/LegislativeSummaries/bills_ls.asp?ls=c42&Parl=41&Ses=2&source=library_prb&Language=E Bill C-42: An Act to amend the Firearms Act and the Criminal Code and to make a related amendment and a consequential amendment to other Acts (short title: Common Sense Firearms Licensing Act) was introduced in the House of Commons on 7 October 2014 by the Honourable Steven Blaney, Minister of Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness. Legislative Summaries 789 Wed, 15 Apr 2015 00:00:00 EST Legislative Summary of Bill C-43: A Second Act to Implement Certain Provisions of the Budget Tabled in Parliament on February 11, 2014 and Other Measures (New) https://lop.parl.ca/About/Parliament/LegislativeSummaries/bills_ls.asp?ls=c43&Parl=41&Ses=2&source=library_prb&Language=E As its short and long titles show, the purpose of Bill C-43 is to implement the government's overall budget policy introduced in the House of Commons on 11 February 2014. Consistent with established legislative practice, it is the second implementation bill for Budget 2014. Bill C-31, the first such implementation bill, was passed on 19 June 2014. Legislative Summaries 786 Mon, 3 Nov 2014 00:00:00 EST Legislative Summary of Bill C-43: An Act to Amend the Immigration and Refugee Protection Act (Faster Removal of Foreign Criminals Act) (Modified) https://lop.parl.ca/About/Parliament/LegislativeSummaries/bills_ls.asp?ls=c43&Parl=41&Ses=1&source=library_prb&Language=E Legislative Summary of Bill C-43 Legislative Summaries 588 Wed, 3 Oct 2012 00:00:00 EST Legislative Summary of Bill C-46: An Act to amend the National Energy Board Act and the Canada Oil and Gas Operations Act (New) https://lop.parl.ca/About/Parliament/LegislativeSummaries/bills_ls.asp?Language=E&ls=c46&Parl=41&Ses=2&source=library_prb Bill C-46, An Act to amend the National Energy Board Act and the Canada Oil and Gas Operations Act (short title: Pipeline Safety Act) was introduced and received first reading in the House of Commons on 8 December 2014. Legislative Summaries 784 Thu, 15 Jan 2015 00:00:00 EST Legislative Summary of Bill C-48: An Act to amend the Canada Grain Act and to make consequential amendments to other Acts (New) https://lop.parl.ca/About/Parliament/LegislativeSummaries/bills_ls.asp?ls=c48&Parl=41&Ses=2&source=library_prb&Language=E Bill C-48: An Act to amend the Canada Grain Act and to make consequential amendments to other Acts (short title: Modernization of Canada's Grain Industry Act) was introduced in the House of Commons by the Minister of State (Finance) on behalf of the Minister of Agriculture and Agri Food and received first reading on 9 December 2014. Legislative Summaries 793 Fri, 30 Jan 2015 00:00:00 EST Legislative Summary of Bill C-49: An Act to amend the Competition Act (New) https://lop.parl.ca/About/Parliament/LegislativeSummaries/bills_ls.asp?ls=c49&Parl=41&Ses=2&source=library_prb&Language=E Bill C-49: An Act to amend the Competition Act (short title: Price Transparency Act) was introduced and given first reading in the House of Commons on 9 December 2014. Fundamentally, the bill aims to end geographic price discrimination, which, according to the government, is one of the key contributors to the Canada–U.S. price gap for consumer goods. Legislative Summaries 790 Wed, 11 Mar 2015 00:00:00 EST Legislative Summary of Bill C-49: An Act to amend the Immigration and Refugee Protection Act, the Balanced Refugee Reform Act and the Marine Transportation Security Act (New) https://lop.parl.ca/About/Parliament/LegislativeSummaries/bills_ls.asp?Language=E&ls=c49&source=library_prb&Parl=40&Ses=3 Legislative Summary of Bill C-49 Legislative Summaries 438 Legislative Summary of Bill C-49: An Act to amend the Museums Act in order to establish the Canadian Museum of History and to make consequential amendments to other Acts (New) https://lop.parl.ca/About/Parliament/LegislativeSummaries/bills_ls.asp?Language=E&ls=c49&Parl=41&Ses=1&source=library_prb Legislative Summary of Bill C-49 Legislative Summaries 437 Tue, 4 Dec 2012 00:00:00 EST Legislative Summary of Bill C-5: An Act to amend the Canada–Newfoundland Atlantic Accord Implementation Act, the Canada–Nova Scotia Offshore Petroleum Resources Accord Implementation Act and other Acts and to provide for certain other measures (Modified) https://lop.parl.ca/About/Parliament/LegislativeSummaries/bills_ls.asp?ls=c5&Parl=41&Ses=2&source=library_prb&Language=E Bill C-5, An Act to amend the Canada–Newfoundland Atlantic Accord Implementation Act, the Canada–Nova Scotia Offshore Petroleum Resources Accord Implementation Act and other Acts and to provide for certain other measures (short title: Offshore Health and Safety Act), was introduced in the House of Commons by the Honourable Lisa Raitt for the Minister of Natural Resources and received first reading on 24 October 2013. Legislative Summaries 724 Thu, 27 Feb 2014 00:00:00 EST Legislative Summary of Bill C-50: An Act to amend the Canada Elections Act (New) https://lop.parl.ca/About/Parliament/LegislativeSummaries/bills_ls.asp?ls=c50&Parl=41&Ses=2&source=library_prb&Language=E Bill C-50, An Act to amend the Canada Elections Act (short title: Citizen Voting Act) was introduced and received first reading in the House of Commons on 10 December 2014. The bill modifies the conditions that Canadians living abroad must meet in order to vote in a federal election. It also provides mechanisms to help Elections Canada remove the names of non-citizens from the National Register of Electors. Legislative Summaries 777 Thu, 8 Jan 2015 00:00:00 EST Legislative Summary of Bill C-51: An Act to amend the Witness Protection Program Act and to make a consequential amendment to another Act (New) https://lop.parl.ca/About/Parliament/LegislativeSummaries/bills_ls.asp?ls=c51&Parl=41&Ses=1&source=library_prb&Language=E Legislative Summary of Bill C-51 Legislative Summaries 626 Mon, 4 Feb 2013 00:00:00 EST Legislative Summary of Bill C-51: Investigative Powers for the 21st Century Act (New) https://lop.parl.ca/About/Parliament/LegislativeSummaries/bills_ls.asp?Language=E&ls=c51&source=library_prb&Parl=40&Ses=3 Publication No. 40-3-C51E Legislative Summaries 457 Mon, 21 Feb 2011 00:00:00 EST Legislative Summary of Bill C-52: An Act to amend the Canada Transportation Act and the Railway Safety Act (New) https://lop.parl.ca/About/Parliament/LegislativeSummaries/bills_ls.asp?Language=E&ls=c52&Parl=41&Ses=2&source=library_prb Bill C-52, An Act to amend the Canada Transportation Act and the Railway Safety Act (short title: Safe and Accountable Rail Act) was introduced by the Honourable Lisa Raitt, Minister of Transport, and received first reading in the House of Commons on 20 February 2015. It was passed by the House of Commons on 27 May 2015, and received first reading in the Senate on 28 May 2015. Legislative Summaries 796 Fri, 29 May 2015 00:00:00 EST Legislative Summary of Bill C-55: An Act to amend the Canadian Forces Members and Veterans Re-establishment and Compensation Act and the Pension Act (Modified) https://lop.parl.ca/About/Parliament/LegislativeSummaries/bills_ls.asp?Language=E&lang=F&ls=c55&source=library_prb&Parl=40&Ses=3 Publication no 40-3-C55E Legislative Summaries 454 Wed, 30 Mar 2011 00:00:00 EST Legislative Summary of Bill C-56: An Act to amend the Copyright Act and the Trade-marks Act and to make consequential amendments to other Acts (New) https://lop.parl.ca/About/Parliament/LegislativeSummaries/bills_ls.asp?ls=c56&Parl=41&Ses=1&source=library_prb&Language=E 41st Parliament, 1st Session Bill C-56, An Act to amend the Copyright Act and the Trade-marks Act and to make consequential amendments to other Acts (short title: "Combating Counterfeit Products Act"), was introduced in the House of Commons by the Minister of Industry and Minister of State (Agriculture), the Honourable Christian Paradis, and read for the first time on 1 March 2013. The bill passed second reading and was referred to the House of Commons Standing Committee on Industry, Science and Technology on 12 June 2013. The House of Commons adjourned on 18 June 2013, before the committee began to study the bill. Legislative Summaries 646 Tue, 15 Oct 2013 00:00:00 EST Legislative Summary of Bill C-57: An Act to amend the Agreement on Internal Trade Implementation Act and the Crown Liability and Proceedings Act" (New) https://lop.parl.ca/About/Parliament/LegislativeSummaries/bills_ls.asp?Language=E&ls=c57&source=library_prb&Parl=40&Ses=3 Publication No. 40-3-C57E Legislative Summaries 452 Wed, 9 Feb 2011 00:00:00 EST Legislative Summary of Bill C-586: An Act to amend the Canada Elections Act and the Parliament of Canada Act (candidacy and caucus reforms) (New) https://lop.parl.ca/About/Parliament/LegislativeSummaries/bills_ls.asp?ls=c586&Parl=41&Ses=2&source=library_prb&Language=E Bill C-586, An Act to amend the Canada Elections Act and the Parliament of Canada Act (candidacy and caucus reforms) was introduced in the House of Commons by the bill's sponsor, Michael Chong, on 7 April 2014. After second reading, the bill was referred to the House of Commons Standing Committee on Procedure and House Affairs, which amended the bill and presented its report to the House on 26 January 2015. Bill C-586 is an amended version of Bill C-559, An Act to amend the Canada Elections Act and the Parliament of Canada Act (reforms), introduced in the House by Mr. Chong on 3 December 2013. Legislative Summaries 783 Wed, 14 Jan 2015 00:00:00 EST Legislative Summary of Bill C-6: An Act to Implement the Convention on Cluster Munitions (Modified) https://lop.parl.ca/About/Parliament/LegislativeSummaries/bills_ls.asp?ls=c6&Parl=41&Ses=2&source=library_prb&Language=E The purpose of the bill is to implement Canada's international obligations under the Convention on Cluster Munitions (CCM) in order that Canada may ratify the treaty.2 Under Canada's constitutional system, obligations contained in international treaties must be implemented in legislation passed by Parliament in order to have direct effect under domestic law. Legislative Summaries 681 Wed, 11 Dec 2013 00:00:00 EST Legislative Summary of Bill C-61: An Act to amend the Canada–Newfoundland Atlantic Accord Implementation Act, the Canada–Nova Scotia Offshore Petroleum Resources Accord Implementation Act and other Acts and to provide for certain other measures (New) https://lop.parl.ca/About/Parliament/LegislativeSummaries/bills_ls.asp?ls=c61&Parl=41&Ses=1&source=library_prb&Language=E The bill establishes a new occupational health and safety regime applicable to workplaces in the offshore areas of Newfoundland and Labrador and of Nova Scotia. The federal and provincial governments jointly manage oil and gas resources in these offshore areas under bilateral accords. The bill amends the federal Acts implementing these accords and makes other consequential changes. The legislatures of Newfoundland and Labrador and of Nova Scotia have recently amended corresponding provincial Acts implementing the accords. Legislative Summaries 735 Mon, 3 Jun 2013 00:00:00 EST Legislative Summary of Bill C-7: An Act to amend the Museums Act in order to establish the Canadian Museum of History and to make consequential amendments to other Acts (New) https://lop.parl.ca/About/Parliament/LegislativeSummaries/bills_ls.asp?Language=E&ls=c7&Parl=41&Ses=2&source=library_prb 41-2-C7-E Legislative Summaries 663 Mon, 28 Oct 2013 00:00:00 EST Legislative Summary of Bill C-7: An Act to amend the Public Service Labour Relations Act, the Public Service Labour Relations and Employment Board Act and other Acts and to provide for certain other measures (New) https://lop.parl.ca/About/Parliament/LegislativeSummaries/bills_ls.asp?Language=E&ls=c7&Parl=42&Ses=1&source=library_prb Bill C-7, An Act to amend the Public Service Labour Relations Act, the Public Service Labour Relations and Employment Board Act and other Acts and to provide for certain other measures, was introduced in the House of Commons by the President of the Treasury Board on 9 March 2016. It passed second reading and was referred to the House of Commons Standing Committee on Public Safety and National Security on 24 March 2016. Legislative Summaries 920 Tue, 27 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EST Legislative Summary of Bill C-8: An Act to amend the Copyright Act and the Trade-marks Act and to make consequential amendments to other Acts (New) https://lop.parl.ca/About/Parliament/LegislativeSummaries/bills_ls.asp?ls=c8&Parl=41&Ses=2&source=library_prb&Language=E Bill C-8, An Act to amend the Copyright Act and the Trade-marks Act and to make consequential amendments to other Acts (short title: Combating Counterfeit Products Act), was introduced and read for the first time in the House of Commons on 28 October 2013. Bill C-8 was previously introduced in the 1st Session of the 41st Parliament as Bill C-56, which died on the Order Paper when Parliament was prorogued on 13 September 2013. Bill C-56 had been passed at second reading and referred to the House of Commons Standing Committee on Industry, Science and Technology (the Committee). The House of Commons adjourned on 18 June 2013, before the Committee began to study the bill. Pursuant to an Order of the House of Commons of 21 October 2013 allowing the Government to reinstate bills in the new session at their last completed stage in the previous session, Bill C-8 was deemed read a second time and referred to the Committee when it was introduced. Legislative Summaries 734 Tue, 11 Feb 2014 00:00:00 EST Legislative Summary of Bill S-10: An Act to Implement the Convention on Cluster Munitions (New) https://lop.parl.ca/About/Parliament/LegislativeSummaries/bills_ls.asp?ls=s10&Parl=41&Ses=1&source=library_prb&Language=E Legislative Summary of Bill S-10: An Act to Implement the Convention on Cluster Munitions Legislative Summaries 590 Tue, 2 Oct 2012 00:00:00 EST Legislative Summary of Bill S-11: Safe Food for Canadians Act (New) https://lop.parl.ca/About/Parliament/LegislativeSummaries/bills_ls.asp?Language=E&ls=s11&Parl=41&Ses=1&source=library_prb Publication Number 41-1-S11-E Legislative Summaries 587 Thu, 20 Sep 2012 00:00:00 EST Legislative Summary of Bill S-11: The Safe Drinking Water for First Nations Act (New) https://lop.parl.ca/About/Parliament/LegislativeSummaries/bills_ls.asp?Language=E&ls=s11&source=library_prb&Parl=40&Ses=3 Legislative Summary of Bill S-11 Legislative Summaries 421 Tue, 21 Sep 2010 00:00:00 EST Legislative Summary of Bill S-12: An Act to amend the Statutory Instruments Act and to make consequential amendments to the Statutory Instruments Regulations (New) https://lop.parl.ca/About/Parliament/LegislativeSummaries/bills_ls.asp?Language=E&ls=s12&Parl=41&Ses=1&source=library_prb 41-1-S12-E Legislative Summaries 617 Mon, 17 Dec 2012 00:00:00 EST Legislative Summary of Bill S-12: Federal Law–Civil Law Harmonization Act, No. 3 (New) https://lop.parl.ca/About/Parliament/LegislativeSummaries/bills_ls.asp?Language=E&ls=s12&source=library_prb&Parl=40&Ses=3 Publication No. 40-3-S12E Legislative Summaries 453 Wed, 9 Feb 2011 00:00:00 EST Legislative Summary of Bill S-13: An Act to amend the Coastal Fisheries Protection Act (New) https://lop.parl.ca/About/Parliament/LegislativeSummaries/bills_ls.asp?ls=s13&Parl=41&Ses=1&source=library_prb&Language=E 41-1-S13-E Legislative Summaries 618 Wed, 21 Nov 2012 00:00:00 EST Legislative Summary of Bill S-13: Keeping Canadians Safe (Protecting Borders) Act (Modified) https://lop.parl.ca/About/Parliament/LegislativeSummaries/bills_ls.asp?Language=E&Language=E&ls=s13&source=library_prb&Parl=40&Ses=3 Legislative Summary of Bill S-13 Legislative Summaries 444 Tue, 12 Apr 2011 00:00:00 EST Legislative Summary of Bill S-15: An Act to amend the Canada National Parks Act and the Canada–Nova Scotia Offshore Petroleum Resources Accord Implementation Act and to make consequential amendments to the Canada Shipping Act, 2001 (New) https://lop.parl.ca/About/Parliament/LegislativeSummaries/bills_ls.asp?ls=s15&Parl=41&Ses=1&source=library_prb&Language=E Legislative Summary of Bill S-15 Legislative Summaries 632 Fri, 15 Mar 2013 00:00:00 EST Legislative Summary of Bill S-16: An Act to amend the Criminal Code (trafficking in contraband tobacco) (New) https://lop.parl.ca/About/Parliament/LegislativeSummaries/bills_ls.asp?ls=s16&Parl=41&Ses=1&source=library_prb&Language=E 41-1-S16-E Legislative Summaries 639 Mon, 15 Apr 2013 00:00:00 EST Legislative Summary of Bill S-2: An Act to amend the Motor Vehicle Safety Act and to make a consequential amendment to another Act (New) https://lop.parl.ca/About/Parliament/LegislativeSummaries/bills_ls.asp?ls=s2&Parl=42&Ses=1&source=library_prb&Language=E Bill S-2, An Act to amend the Motor Vehicle Safety Act and to make a consequential amendment to another Act (short title: Strengthening Motor Vehicle Safety for Canadians Act), was introduced in the Senate by the Honourable Peter Harder, Leader of the Government in the Senate, and read for the first time on 11 May 2016.1 It amends the Motor Vehicle Safety Act (MVSA) to give the Minister of Transport new vehicle recall powers. Legislative Summaries 917 Fri, 23 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EST Legislative Summary of Bill S-2: Family Homes on Reserves and Matrimonial Interests or Rights Act (Modified) https://lop.parl.ca/About/Parliament/LegislativeSummaries/bills_ls.asp?Language=E&ls=s2&Parl=41&Ses=1&source=library_prb Publication No. 41-1-S2-E Legislative Summaries 513 Tue, 24 Jan 2012 00:00:00 EST Legislative Summary of Bill S-201: An Act to prohibit and prevent genetic discrimination (New) https://lop.parl.ca/About/Parliament/LegislativeSummaries/bills_ls.asp?ls=s201&Parl=42&Ses=1&source=library_prb&Language=E Bill S-201, An Act to prohibit and prevent genetic discrimination (short title: Genetic Non-Discrimination Act), is a Senate public bill introduced by Senator James S. Cowan on 8 December 2015. Legislative Summaries 940 Tue, 6 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST Legislative Summary of Bill S-209: An Act to amend the Official Languages Act (communications with and services to the public) (New) https://lop.parl.ca/About/Parliament/LegislativeSummaries/bills_ls.asp?ls=s209&Parl=42&Ses=1&source=library_prb&Language=E Bill S-209, An Act to amend the Official Languages Act (communications with and services to the public) was tabled in the Senate by the Honourable Maria Chaput on 8 December 2015. When Senator Chaput left the Senate, the Honourable Raymonde Gagné took over sponsorship of the bill, which was referred to the Standing Senate Committee on Official Languages on 17 November 2016. Legislative Summaries 932 Fri, 9 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST Legislative Summary of Bill S-3: An Act to amend the Coastal Fisheries Protection Act (Modified) https://lop.parl.ca/About/Parliament/LegislativeSummaries/bills_ls.asp?ls=s3&Parl=41&Ses=2&source=library_prb&Language=E Bill S-3, An Act to amend the Coastal Fisheries Protection Act (alternative title: Port State Measures Agreement Implementation Act) was introduced in the Senate by the Leader of the Government in the Senate and received first reading on 23 October 2013. Bill S-3 was previously introduced during the 1st Session of the 41st Parliament as Bill S-13. That bill was adopted by the Senate and was awaiting second reading in the House of Commons when it died on the Order Paper with the prorogation of Parliament on 13 September 2013. Legislative Summaries 787 Thu, 21 May 2015 00:00:00 EST Legislative Summary of Bill S-3: An Act to amend the Coastal Fisheries Protection Act (New) https://lop.parl.ca/About/Parliament/LegislativeSummaries/bills_ls.asp?ls=s3&Parl=41&Ses=2&source=library_prb&Language=E 41-2-S3-E Legislative Summaries 662 Mon, 28 Oct 2013 00:00:00 EST Legislative Summary of Bill S-3: An Act to amend the Indian Act (elimination of sex based inequities in registration) (New) https://lop.parl.ca/About/Parliament/LegislativeSummaries/bills_ls.asp?ls=s3&Parl=42&Ses=1&source=library_prb&Language=E Bill S-3, An Act to amend the Indian Act (elimination of sex-based inequities in registration) was introduced in the Senate on 25 October 2016. The bill amends the Indian Act to comply with the Superior Court of Quebec's decision of 3 August 2015 in Descheneaux c. Canada (Procureur général), which found that certain provisions of the Indian Act relating to status violated the equality provisions of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms on the basis of sex. The Court suspended the declaration of invalidity relating to the registration provisions of the Indian Act for 18 months to enable Parliament to amend the Act. Legislative Summaries 945 Wed, 22 Feb 2017 00:00:00 EST Legislative Summary of Bill S-3: Federal Law–Civil Law Harmonization Act, No. 3 (New) https://lop.parl.ca/About/Parliament/LegislativeSummaries/bills_ls.asp?Language=E&ls=s3&Parl=41&Ses=1&source=library_prb Publication No. 41-1-S3-E Legislative Summaries 518 Fri, 28 Oct 2011 00:00:00 EST Legislative Summary of Bill S-4: An Act to amend the Personal Information Protection and Electronic Documents Act and to make a consequential amendment to another Act (New) https://lop.parl.ca/About/Parliament/LegislativeSummaries/bills_ls.asp?ls=s4&Parl=41&Ses=2&source=library_prb&Language=E Bill S-4 amends the Personal Information Protection and Electronic Documents Act, the federal private sector privacy law. It does this in several notable ways, including by: permitting the disclosure of an individual's personal information without their knowledge or consent in certain circumstances; requiring organizations to take various measures in cases of data security breaches; creating offences for failure to comply with obligations related to data security breaches; and enabling the Privacy Commissioner, in certain circumstances, to enter into compliance agreements with organizations. Legislative Summaries 760 Wed, 11 Jun 2014 00:00:00 EST Legislative Summary of Bill S-4: Family Homes on Reserves and Matrimonial Interests or Rights Act Family Homes on Reserves and Matrimonial Interests or Rights Act (Modified) https://lop.parl.ca/About/Parliament/LegislativeSummaries/bills_ls.asp?Language=E&Language=E&ls=s4&source=library_prb&Parl=40&Ses=3 No. 40-3-S4E Legislative Summaries 370 Tue, 30 Nov 2010 00:00:00 EST Legislative Summary of Bill S-4: Safer Railways Act (Modified) https://lop.parl.ca/About/Parliament/LegislativeSummaries/bills_ls.asp?ls=s4&Parl=41&Ses=1&source=library_prb&Language=E# Publication No. 41-1-S4-E Legislative Summaries 525 Mon, 16 Jan 2012 00:00:00 EST Legislative Summary of Bill S-5: An Act to amend the Tobacco Act and the Non-smokers' Health Act and to make consequential amendments to other Acts (New) https://lop.parl.ca/About/Parliament/LegislativeSummaries/bills_ls.asp?ls=s5&Parl=42&Ses=1&source=library_prb&Language=E Bill S-5, An Act to amend the Tobacco Act and the Non-smokers' Health Act and to make consequential amendments to other Acts (short title: Tobacco and Vaping Products Act) was introduced in the Senate on 22 November 2016 by Senator Peter Harder. The bill proposes amendments that would implement a legislative framework under the Tobacco Act for vaping products. Legislative Summaries 941 Wed, 14 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST Legislative Summary of Bill S-5: Ensuring Safe Vehicles Imported from Mexico for Canadians Act (New) https://lop.parl.ca/About/Parliament/LegislativeSummaries/bills_ls.asp?Language=E&ls=s5&source=library_prb&Parl=40&Ses=3 Legislative Summary of Bill S-5 Legislative Summaries 399 Thu, 3 Jun 2010 00:00:00 EST Legislative Summary of Bill S-6: An Act to amend the Yukon Environmental and Socio economic Assessment Act and the Nunavut Waters and Nunavut Surface Rights Tribunal Act (New) https://lop.parl.ca/About/Parliament/LegislativeSummaries/bills_ls.asp?ls=s6&Parl=41&Ses=2&source=library_prb&Language=E Bill S-6, An Act to amend the Yukon Environmental and Socio-economic Assessment Act and the Nunavut Waters and Nunavut Surface Rights Tribunal Act (short title: Yukon and Nunavut Regulatory Improvement Act) was introduced in the Senate on 3 June 2014. Legislative Summaries 762 Wed, 18 Jun 2014 00:00:00 EST Legislative Summary of Bill S-7: An Act to amend the Criminal Code, the Canada Evidence Act and the Security of Information Act (New) https://lop.parl.ca/About/Parliament/LegislativeSummaries/bills_ls.asp?Language=E&ls=s7&Parl=41&Ses=1&source=library_prb Publication Number 41-1-S7-E Legislative Summaries 583 Mon, 30 Jul 2012 00:00:00 EST Legislative Summary of Bill S-8: The Safe Drinking Water for First Nations Act (New) https://lop.parl.ca/About/Parliament/LegislativeSummaries/bills_ls.asp?Language=E&ls=s8&Parl=41&Ses=1&source=library_prb Legislative Summary of Bill S-8 Legislative Summaries 568 Thu, 19 Apr 2012 00:00:00 EST Legislative Summary of Bill S-8: The Senatorial Selection Act The Senatorial Selection Act (New) https://lop.parl.ca/About/Parliament/LegislativeSummaries/bills_ls.asp?Language=E&ls=s8&source=library_prb&Parl=40&Ses=3 Legislative Summary of Bill S-8 Legislative Summaries 398 Thu, 3 Jun 2010 00:00:00 EST Legislative Summary of Bill S-9: An Act to amend the Criminal Code (Nuclear Terrorism Act) (New) https://lop.parl.ca/About/Parliament/LegislativeSummaries/bills_ls.asp?ls=s9&Parl=41&Ses=1&source=library_prb&Language=E 41-1-S9E Legislative Summaries 576 Fri, 11 May 2012 00:00:00 EST Nunavut Planning and Project Assessment Act (New) https://lop.parl.ca/About/Parliament/LegislativeSummaries/bills_ls.asp?Language=E&ls=c25&source=library_prb&Parl=40&Ses=3 Legislative Summary of Bill C-25 Legislative Summaries 439 Mon, 13 Sep 2010 00:00:00 EST Protecting Children from Sexual Predators Act (New) https://lop.parl.ca/About/Parliament/LegislativeSummaries/bills_ls.asp?Language=E&ls=c54&source=library_prb&Parl=40&Ses=3 Legislative Summary of Bill C-54 Legislative Summaries 448 Wed, 22 Dec 2010 00:00:00 EST Protecting Victims from Sex Offenders Act (New) https://lop.parl.ca/About/Parliament/LegislativeSummaries/bills_ls.asp?Language=E&ls=s2&source=library_prb&Parl=40&Ses=3 Legislative Summary of Bill S-2 Legislative Summaries 371 Fri, 19 Mar 2010 00:00:00 EST Safeguarding Canada's Seas and Skies Act (New) https://lop.parl.ca/About/Parliament/LegislativeSummaries/bills_ls.asp?ls=c3&Parl=41&Ses=2&source=library_prb&Language=E Bill C-3, An Act to enact the Aviation Industry Indemnity Act, to amend the Aeronautics Act, the Canada Marine Act, the Marine Liability Act and the Canada Shipping Act, 2001 and to make consequential amendments to other Acts (short title: Safeguarding Canada's Seas and Skies Act) was introduced in the House of Commons by the Minister of Transport on 18 October 2013. Legislative Summaries 678 Tue, 5 Nov 2013 00:00:00 EST Safer Railways Act (Modified) https://lop.parl.ca/About/Parliament/LegislativeSummaries/bills_ls.asp?Language=E&Language=E&ls=c33&source=library_prb&Parl=40&Ses=3 Legislative Summary of Bill C-33 Legislative Summaries 425 Wed, 27 Jul 2011 00:00:00 EST The Freezing Assets of Corrupt Foreign Officials Act (New) https://lop.parl.ca/About/Parliament/LegislativeSummaries/bills_ls.asp?Language=E&ls=c61&Parl=40&Ses=3&source=library_prb Legislative Summary of Bill C-61 Legislative Summaries 519 Thu, 24 Mar 2011 00:00:00 EST The Standing Joint Committee for the Scrutiny of Regulations (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2014-18-e.htm?cat=government The Standing Joint Committee for the Scrutiny of Regulations is perhaps not as well known as it might be, given the importance of its work. One of only two committees with members from both the Senate and the House of Commons, the Joint Committee is responsible for ensuring that, whenever Parliament delegates regulation-making authority to another body, that authority is exercised appropriately. Legislative Summaries 763 Wed, 2 Apr 2014 00:00:00 EST Transboundary Waters Protection Act (Modified) https://lop.parl.ca/About/Parliament/LegislativeSummaries/bills_ls.asp?Language=E&ls=c26&source=library_prb&Parl=40&Ses=3 Legislative Summary of Bill C-26 Legislative Summaries 404 Thu, 22 Jul 2010 00:00:00 EST Legislative Summary of Bill C-53: Succession to the Throne Act, 2013 (New) https://lop.parl.ca/About/Parliament/LegislativeSummaries/bills_ls.asp?ls=c53&Parl=41&Ses=1&source=library_prb&Language=E On 31 January 2013, the Honourable Rob Nicholson, Minister of Justice and Attorney General of Canada, introduced Bill C-53, An Act to assent to alterations in the law touching the Succession to the Throne (short title: Succession to the Throne Act, 2013) in the House of Commons. The purpose of the bill is to express the Canadian Parliament's assent to a British legislative proposal to change the rules of succession to the Throne by making succession no longer dependent on gender and by ending the disqualification that results from marrying a Roman Catholic. Legislative Summaries, 41st Parliament, 1st Session 701 Fri, 30 Aug 2013 00:00:00 EST Bilingualism in the Federal Courts (Modified) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2011-40-e.htm Publication No. 2011-40-E Official Languages 511 Wed, 2 Mar 2016 00:00:00 EST Official Languages in Canada: Federal Policy (Modified) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2011-70-e.htm 2011-70-E Official Languages 494 Mon, 18 Jan 2016 00:00:00 EST Official Languages in the Federal Public Service (Modified) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2011-69-e.htm Publication No. 2011-69-E Official Languages 493 Mon, 14 Dec 2015 00:00:00 EST Conflict of Interest at the Federal Level: Legislative Framework and Oversight (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2005-09-e.htm# Publication No. 2005-09-E Parliament and the Legislative Process 455 Tue, 15 Feb 2011 00:00:00 EST Gender-Sensitive Parliaments: 2. The Work of Legislators (Modified) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2012-45-e.htm Background Paper No. 2012-45-E Parliament and the Legislative Process 592 Fri, 5 Apr 2013 00:00:00 EST The Federal Lobbying System: The Lobbying Act and the Lobbyists' Code of Conduct (Modified) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2011-73-e.htm 2011-73-E Parliament and the Legislative Process 510 Sat, 28 May 2011 00:00:00 EST When Does an Elected Candidate Become a Member of the House of Commons? (Modified) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2010-07-e.htm 2010-07E Parliament and the Legislative Process 353 Mon, 27 Jul 2015 00:00:00 EST Women in Parliament (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/prb0562-e.htm Publication No. 05-62E Parliament and the Legislative Process 413 Mon, 19 Jul 2010 00:00:00 EST Automated and Connected Vehicles: Status of the Technology and Key Policy Issues for Canadian Governments (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2016-98-e.html?cat=science Automated (self-driving) and connected vehicles are being developed and tested around the world. In Canada, the Government of Ontario announced a pilot project in October 2015 that would allow the testing of automated vehicles in the province. Science and technology 930 Thu, 29 Sep 2016 00:00:00 EST Cybersecurity and Intelligence: The U.S. Approach (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2010-02-e.htm?cat=science The United States characterizes cyber espionage and attack as first-order threats and has reformulated its national cybersecurity strategy. Three of its closest (Five Eyes) intelligence partners - Australia, New Zealand and the United Kingdom - have followed suit. Science and technology 863 Wed, 15 Jun 2011 00:00:00 EST Federal and Provincial Initiatives to Facilitate Electronic Commerce (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2008-61-e.htm?cat=science Since the mid-1990s, the use of electronic communication over the Internet has increased exponentially. In Canada, the federal and provincial governments have taken steps to recognize the use of electronic communications in commerce by removing legal obstacles to it. This involves treating paper-based documents and electronic documents as functionally equivalent, and ensuring that electronic communications will not be discriminated against or denied legal effect simply because they are in electronic form. Science and technology 861 Wed, 18 Jul 2012 00:00:00 EST Rural Broadband Deployment (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2011-57-e.htm?cat=science High-speed Internet (or broadband) has become integral to the lives of many Canadians who use it for banking, shopping, education and entertainment. Furthermore, as governments of all levels are increasing the number of services available online, many commentators now argue that broadband should be viewed as an essential service. However, given that building broadband networks is extremely expensive, their cost-effectiveness is highly dependent upon the population density of a given market. The uneven distribution of population over Canada's vast landscape, with most Canadians living in cities along the border with the United States, means that urban Canadians have access to a wide variety of Internet services, while those living in rural or remote areas have limited or no access to broadband. This difference is often referred to as the “digital divide,” and it has become a policy concern for all levels of government. Science and technology 862 Mon, 27 Jun 2011 00:00:00 EST The Canadian Aerospace Industry and the Role of the Federal Government (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2013-21-e.htm?cat=science The Canadian aerospace industry is a world leader in several areas and an important contributor to Canada's economy. The November 2012 report of the federal Review of Aerospace and Space Programs and Policies (also known as the Aerospace Review) has put a spotlight on this industry and its related federal government support. This paper examines the Canadian aerospace industry and the role of the support it receives from the Government of Canada. Science and technology 859 Thu, 25 Apr 2013 00:00:00 EST The International Space Station: Canada's Involvement (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2010-17-e.htm?cat=science The International Space Station (ISS) is a research facility operated in low-Earth orbit by an international consortium of space agencies. Assembly of the facility began in 1998 and was completed in 2011. Current plans provide for operation of the ISS until at least 2020. This document presents background information about the space station and the contributions of the main participants, particularly Canada, in the project. Science and technology 860 Mon, 14 Jan 2013 00:00:00 EST The State of Broadband Internet in Canada (New) https://hillnotes.wordpress.com/2016/05/04/the-state-of-broadband-internet-in-canada/ Canadians are among the highest Internet users in the world, according to comScore Canada. With advances in e-commerce and mobile communication, as well as increased participation in social media, broadband (or “high-speed”) Internet has become an integral part of Canada's infrastructure. Science and technology 900 Wed, 4 May 2016 00:00:00 EST The Stuxnet Worm: Just Another Computer Attack or a Game Changer? (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2010-81-e.htm 2010-81-E Science and Technology 445 Thu, 7 Oct 2010 00:00:00 EST “Equality Matters”: Canada Celebrates International Women's Day 2017 (New) https://hillnotes.wordpress.com/2017/03/08/equality-matters-canada-celebrates-international-womens-day-2017/ This HillNote examines selected aspects of women's employment and earnings, both domestically and globally. It identifies some Canadian federal and parliamentary initiatives relating to gender and gender equality. Finally, it highlights Canada's participation in the forthcoming annual session of the UN Commission on the Status of Women. Social affairs and population 939 Wed, 8 Mar 2017 00:00:00 EST Canadian Multiculturalism (Modified) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2009-20-e.htm 2009-20-E Social affairs and population 628 Wed, 24 Oct 2012 00:00:00 EST Diversity in Canada: Evolving patterns in immigration (New) https://hillnotes.wordpress.com/2016/04/05/diversity-in-canada-evolving-patterns-in-immigration/ Immigration has played an increasingly critical role in the shaping of Canada's population. A variety of factors, including policy developments, have led to important changes in the composition of the immigrant population over time. As a result, the nation's linguistic diversity, racial diversity and religious diversity have all been on the rise. These trends show no signs of slowing. Social affairs and population 892 Tue, 5 Apr 2016 00:00:00 EST Envisioning a Sustainable and Dignified World (New) https://hillnotes.wordpress.com/2016/04/14/envisioning-a-sustainable-and-dignified-world/ On 25 September 2015, the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development was adopted at a special summit of the United Nations (UN). It expresses the shared commitment of all member states to take the actions necessary to end poverty, overcome inequality, promote human dignity and protect the natural environment. Social affairs and population 893 Thu, 14 Apr 2016 00:00:00 EST Euthanasia and Assisted Suicide: International Experiences (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2011-67-e.htm This paper reviews developments in jurisdictions that already permit physician-assisted suicide or euthanasia (or both) in certain contexts, as well as developments in some jurisdictions that appear to be moving toward greater acceptance of these practices. An appendix at the end of this paper provides an overview, in chart format, of the current legal status of euthanasia and assisted suicide in various jurisdictions. Social affairs and population 669 Thu, 5 Dec 2013 00:00:00 EST Gender-based Analysis Plus in Canada (New) https://hillnotes.ca/2017/05/26/gender-based-analysis-plus-in-canada/ From 29 May to 2 June 2017, the Government of Canada will hold its 6th annual Gender-based Analysis Plus Awareness Week. The Government of Canada uses Gender-based Analysis Plus (GBA+) to examine the impact of legislation, policies, programs and budgetary measures on diverse groups of women, men and gender-diverse people by taking into consideration sex, gender and other identity factors. The “plus” in GBA+ incorporates a range of intersecting identity factors; they include age, disability, education, language, sexual orientation, culture, geography, ethnicity, indigeneity, religion, social class and income. Social affairs and population 946 Mon, 29 May 2017 00:00:00 EST HillNote - Violence Against Women in Canada: The National Day of Remembrance and Action on Violence Against Women (New) https://hillnotes.wordpress.com/2016/12/06/violence-against-women-in-canada-the-national-day-of-remembrance-and-action-on-violence-against-women/ The National Day of Remembrance and Action on Violence Against Women – marked every year on 6 December – provides an opportunity to reflect on how violence affects women in Canada and how our communities can take action to end violence against women. Social affairs and population 931 Tue, 6 Dec 2016 00:00:00 EST Immigration Policy Primer (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2015-42-e.html?cat=social Every year, more than 250,000 people immigrate to Canada. More come to Canada to visit, study or work on a temporary basis. The objectives of Canada's immigration policy are clearly articulated in the Immigration and Refugee Protection Act (IRPA). Social affairs and population 812 Mon, 16 Nov 2015 00:00:00 EST International Context for Refugee Protection (New) https://hillnotes.wordpress.com/2016/02/04/international-context-for-refugee-protection/ This HillNote describes the international legal framework for refugee protection and the available “durable solutions” as set out by the UNHCR – solutions that end the cycle of displacement and allow refugees to get on with their lives. Social affairs and population 879 Thu, 4 Feb 2016 00:00:00 EST Prostitution: A Review of Legislation in Selected Countries (Modified) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2011-115-e.html Over the last 30 years, the governments of various Western nations have significantly changed their approach to managing prostitution. Little consensus exists, however, with regard to the most appropriate legislative response; and in various countries, attempts to adopt new laws (whether to enact or dismantle criminal legislation) have met with fierce controversy. Social affairs and population 775 Mon, 21 Jul 2014 00:00:00 EST Refugee Protection in Canada (Modified) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2011-90-e.htm The Immigration and Refugee Protection Act (IRPA) lists a series of objectives with respect to refugees, foremost of which is “to recognize that the refugee program is in the first instance about saving lives and offering protection to the displaced and persecuted.” Other key objectives include fulfilling Canada's international legal obligations, specifically under the 1951 United Nations Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees (and its Protocol), providing assistance to refugees in need of resettlement from overseas, and granting fair consideration to those who come to Canada claiming persecution. This paper focuses on the Canadian procedure set in place to achieve this last objective. Social affairs and population 532 Mon, 15 Jul 2013 00:00:00 EST Resettling Refugees: Canada's Humanitarian Commitments (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2015-11-e.html?cat=social The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) estimates that almost 960,000 refugees are currently in need of resettlement in a third country. These are refugees who, according to the UNHCR, can neither return to their country of origin nor integrate into their country of first asylum. Social affairs and population 788 Sat, 4 Apr 2015 00:00:00 EST Snapshot: Canadian Veterans (New) https://hillnotes.wordpress.com/2016/02/15/snapshot-canadian-veterans/ This HillNote provides a snapshot of Canadian veterans. It presents some telling statistics and looks at key issues they face, in order to better understand their needs and the existing framework of policies and programs for veterans. Social affairs and population 877 Mon, 15 Feb 2016 00:00:00 EST The Canada Social Transfer: Past, Present and Future Considerations (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2012-48-e.htm 2012-48-E Social affairs and population 623 Thu, 13 Sep 2012 00:00:00 EST The Evolution of Canadian Immigration Policy (New) https://hillnotes.wordpress.com/2016/02/09/the-evolution-of-canadian-immigration-policy/ Each year, the federal government presents the “Immigration Levels Plan” which informs Parliament and the public about how many permanent immigrants are targeted for admission to Canada in the coming year. Social affairs and population 878 Tue, 9 Feb 2016 00:00:00 EST The Target Benefit Plan: An Emerging Pension Regime (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2016-20-e.html?cat=social Faced with funding constraints, an increasing number of pensioners, and a declining ratio of working employees to retired employees, some pension plan sponsors are looking to new pension models in an effort to obtain more flexibility and better plan sustainability. The target benefit plan (TBP) is a relatively new pension model that may address some of the limits of the current pension plans in Canada. Social affairs and population 910 Fri, 11 Mar 2016 00:00:00 EST Violence Against Women in Canada (New) https://hillnotes.wordpress.com/2016/03/01/violence-against-women-in-canada/ In Canada and around the world, violence against women and girls remains a serious challenge. It impedes women's full and equal participation in public life; it causes short- and long-term damage to women's mental and physical health; and it hurts families and society as a whole. Social affairs and population 876 Tue, 1 Mar 2016 00:00:00 EST Youth Justice Legislation in Canada (Modified) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2008-23-e.htm 2008-23-E Social affairs and population 629 Wed, 21 Nov 2012 00:00:00 EST Youth Voter Turnout in Canada: 1. Trends and Issues (Modified) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2010-19-e.htm Few observations in the realm of political science are as axiomatic as the following statement: Ballots are cast by a far smaller proportion of young people eligible to vote for the first time, in federal or other elections, than are cast by more seasoned voters. Longstanding efforts to buoy the turnout of first-generation voters have met with little success. This fact, while viewed as disappointing, was not, for some time, deemed critical to the overall health of Canada's democratic system. Conventional wisdom had it that these non-voters would grow older and with age would become increasingly engaged and participatory in each passing election. Social affairs and population 406 Fri, 9 Aug 2013 00:00:00 EST Canada's Aging Population and Public Policy: 6. The Effects on Home Care (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2012-03-e.htm Publication No. 2012-03-E Social Security Issues 564 Mon, 2 Apr 2012 00:00:00 EST Canada's Aging Population and Public Policy: 7. The Effects on Community Planning (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2012-02-e.htm Publication No. 2012-02-E Social Security Issues 565 Mon, 2 Apr 2012 00:00:00 EST Canada's Aging Population and Public Policy: 3. The Effects on Health Care (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2011-122-e.htm Publication No. 2011-122-E Social Security Issues 566 Tue, 3 Apr 2012 00:00:00 EST Changes to the Canada Pension Plan Retirement Pension (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2011-54-e.htm 2011-54-E Social Security Issues 488 Fri, 20 May 2011 00:00:00 EST Immigrant Seniors: Their Economic Security and Factors Affecting Their Access to Benefits (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/07-45-e.htm Publication No. 07-45E Social Security Issues 407 Thu, 8 Jul 2010 00:00:00 EST Indexing of Canada Pension Plan and Old Age Security Benefits (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2011-74-e.htm Publication no 2011-74-E Social Security Issues 540 Thu, 15 Dec 2011 00:00:00 EST The New Veterans Charter (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2011-84-e.htm Publication No. 2011-84-E Social Security Issues 544 Mon, 16 Jan 2012 00:00:00 EST The Poverty Prism: Causes of Poverty (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/prb0914-e.htm PRB 09-14E Social Security Issues 319 Tue, 28 Oct 2008 00:00:00 EST The Poverty Prism: Multiple Views of Poverty (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/prb0913-e.htm PRB 09-13E Social Security Issues 324 Wed, 28 Oct 2009 00:00:00 EST The Poverty Prism: What Has Helped? (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/prb0915-e.htm PRB 09-15E Social Security Issues 321 Wed, 28 Oct 2009 00:00:00 EST Canadian Trade and Investment Activity - Canada–Egypt (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2010-90-e.htm Publication No. 2010-90E Trade and Commerce 459 Tue, 1 Mar 2011 00:00:00 EST Canadian Trade and Investment Activity - Canada–Tunisia (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2010-91-e.htm Publication No. 2010-91E Trade and Commerce 460 Tue, 1 Mar 2011 00:00:00 EST Canadian Trade and Investment Activity - Canada–Hungary (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2010-89-e.htm 2010-89-E Trade and Commerce 475 Wed, 10 Nov 2010 00:00:00 EST Canadian Trade and Investment Activity - Canada–Jordan (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2010-74-e.htm Publication no 2010-74-E Trade and Commerce 462 Wed, 2 Mar 2011 00:00:00 EST Canadian Trade and Investment Activity - Canada–Romania (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2010-78-e.htm Publication No. 2010-78E Trade and Commerce 471 Wed, 2 Mar 2011 00:00:00 EST Canadian Trade and Investment Activity - Canada–Serbia (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2010-79-e.htm Publication No. 2010-79E Trade and Commerce 472 Wed, 2 Mar 2011 00:00:00 EST Canadian Trade and Investment Activity Series (New) https://lop.parl.ca/About/Library/VirtualLibrary/ResearchPublicationsTrade-e.asp Canadian Trade and Investment Activity Series Trade and Commerce 431 Thu, 28 Oct 2010 00:00:00 EST Canadian Trade and Investment Activity: Canada–Pakistan (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2010-76-e.htm Publication No. 2010-76E Trade and Commerce 469 Wed, 2 Mar 2011 00:00:00 EST Canadian Trade and Investment Activity: Canada–Panama (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2010-77-e.htm Publication No. 2010-77E Trade and Commerce 470 Wed, 2 Mar 2011 00:00:00 EST Canadian Trade and Investment Activity: Canada–Benin (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2010-73-e.htm Publication no 2010-73-E Trade and Commerce 461 Tue, 1 Mar 2011 00:00:00 EST Canadian Trade and Investment Activity: Canada–Cuba (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2010-87-e.htm 2010-87-E Trade and Commerce 473 Thu, 4 Nov 2010 00:00:00 EST Canadian Trade and Investment Activity: Canada–European Union (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2010-86-e.htm Publication no 2010-86E Trade and Commerce 474 Mon, 7 Mar 2011 00:00:00 EST Canadian Trade and Investment Activity: Canada–France (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2011-127-e.htm Publication No. 2011-128-E Trade and Commerce 562 Fri, 2 Mar 2012 00:00:00 EST Does the Agreement on Internal Trade Do Enough to Liberalize Canada's Domestic Trade in Agri-food Products? (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2010-25-e.htm Publication No. 2010-25 Trade and Commerce 447 Thu, 20 Jan 2011 00:00:00 EST Payment Systems: The Credit Card Market in Canada (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/prb0910-e.htm PRB 09-10E Trade and Commerce 318 Thu, 24 Sep 2009 00:00:00 EST Payment Systems: The Debit Card Market in Canada (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/prb0909-e.htm PRB 09-09E Trade and Commerce 317 Thu, 24 Sep 2009 00:00:00 EST Trade and Investment Series 2014 (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/toctrade-e.htm The Trade and Investment Activity publication series provides information on Canada's trade and investment relationship with selected countries. Particular attention is paid to bilateral merchandise trade, trade in services and foreign investment. It also provides information on the merchandise trade relationship that each of Canada's 10 provinces and three territories has with the world. Trade and Commerce 809 Mon, 25 Jan 2016 00:00:00 EST Trade and Investment Series 2014: Canada-Trans-Pacific Partnership Countries (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2015-127-e.html The TPP was initially envisioned in 2005 with four originating countries: Brunei Darussalam, Chile, New Zealand and Singapore. The first agreement included a clause containing a commitment to encourage accession to the agreement by other countries. Since then, the following countries have joined the TPP negotiations: Australia, Peru, the United States and Vietnam in 2008; Malaysia in 2010; Canada and Mexico in 2012; and Japan in 2013. In October 2015, representatives of the TPP countries announced that they had successfully concluded negotiations for a free trade agreement. Ratification by each country is needed before the agreement enters into force. Trade and Commerce 807 Wed, 13 Jan 2016 00:00:00 EST Trade and Investment Series 2014: Provinces / Territories (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/toctrade-e.htm The Trade and Investment Activity publication series provides information on Canada's trade and investment relationship with selected countries. Particular attention is paid to bilateral merchandise trade, trade in services and foreign investment. It also provides information on the merchandise trade relationship that each of Canada's 10 provinces and three territories has with the world. Please note that the data presented in the 2014 series are based on Statistics Canada annual figures for 2014 released in Spring 2015. Trade and Commerce 799 Mon, 16 Nov 2015 00:00:00 EST Arctic Marine and Intermodal Infrastructure: Challenges and the Government of Canada's Response (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2011-77-e.htm 2011-77-E Transport 535 Thu, 21 Jul 2011 00:00:00 EST VIA Rail Canada Inc. and the Future of Passenger Rail in Canada (New) https://lop.parl.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2011-93-e.htm# Publication No. 2011-93-E Transport 543 Thu, 12 Jan 2012 00:00:00 EST