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PRB 06-17E

Glossary of Agricultural Programs, Acts and Terms - Glossary

Prepared by:
Frédéric Forge
Science and Technology Division
30 June 2006

PDF (678 Kb, 76 pages)


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Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada.
Active Ingredient
(Matière active)
In a pesticide, the ingredient that eliminates the target pest.
Advance Payments for Crops Act
(Paiement anticipé des récoltes, Lois sur le)
Act permitting guarantees for loans to producers to store their harvests and sell them later in the season. Royal Assent in 1977, but inoperative. The sections of the Agricultural Marketing Programs Act (AMPA) repealing this act are not in force, but the transitional measures included in the AMPA render it inoperative.
Advance Payments Program (APP)
(Paiements anticipés, Programme de (PPA))
Program that provides producer associations with a repayment guarantee for advances to producers enabling them to store their harvests and to sell them later in the season when market conditions result in better prices. The program pays the interest on a portion of the advance. In effect since the 1980s and revised in 1997 by the Agricultural Marketing Programs Act. Wholly funded by the federal government.
Advancing Canadian Agriculture and Agri-Food Program
(Avancement du secteur canadien de l’agriculture et de l’agroalimentaire, Programme pour l’)
Program introduced in 2004 to succeed the Canadian Adaptation and Rural Development Fund (CARD). Designed to improve the ability of the agriculture and agri-food sector to exploit new opportunities. Funds national initiatives, delivery of which is ensured by the industry’s national organizations. Funds regional projects through provincial and territorial industry councils. Has a budget of $240 million over five years (federal funding).
Agreement on Agriculture
(Accord sur l'agriculture)
See under GATT.
Agreement on Internal Trade
(Accord sur le commerce intérieur)
Agreement signed by the provinces, territories and federal government which came into force in 1995. Its purpose is to reduce barriers to the free movement of persons, goods, services and investment in Canada. Provides for:
  1. general rules preventing governments from raising new trade barriers and requiring them to reduce existing ones;
  2. the rationalization and harmonization of regulations and standards; and
  3. a dispute settlement mechanism.
Agreement on Internal Trade Implementation Act
(Mise en œuvre de l’Accord sur le commerce intérieur, Loi de)
Act ratifying the Agreement on Internal Trade. Royal Assent in 1996.
Agricultural and Rural Development Act
(Aménagement rural et le développement agricole, Loi sur l’)
Act providing for the signing of federal-provincial agreements for the development of rural regions. Royal Assent in 1961. Main rural development instrument in the 1960s. Still in force, but no agreement currently exists under this act. Minister responsible: Minister of Industry.
Agricultural Income Disaster Assistance (AIDA)
(Aide en cas de catastrophe liée au revenu agricole (ACRA))
Farm income support program introduced in 1998. Provided assistance in the case of events resulting in sudden declines in income. Payments were calculated based on the decline in gross margin relative to the average margin over the five previous years (after eliminating the highest and lowest margins in those years); the amount could not exceed 70% of that average. Funded 60% by the federal government and 40% by the provinces. Replaced in 2000 by the Canadian Farm Income Program.
Agricultural Institute of Canada
(Institut agricole du Canada)
National organization representing the interests of agronomists in Canada.
Agricultural Marketing Programs Act
(Programmes de commercialisation agricole, Loi sur les)
Act providing for two mechanisms, the Advance Payments Program and the Price Pooling Program, to assist producers and marketing boards in marketing their products. Merged the Prairie Grain Advance Payments Act, the Advance Payments for Crops Act and the Agricultural Products Cooperative Marketing Act. Royal Assent in 1997. Minister responsible: Minister of Agriculture and Agri-Food.
Agricultural Policy Framework (APF)
(Cadre stratégique agricole (CSA))
Federal-provincial/territorial initiative announced in 2001, the purpose of which is to develop pan-Canadian solutions to agricultural problems. Has five elements: business risk management; food safety and quality; science and innovation; environment; renewal. A framework agreement setting APF rules and objectives was signed by the provinces in 2003. An implementation agreement was reached for the period from 1 April 2004 to 31 March 2008.
Agricultural Products Cooperative Marketing Act
(Vente coopérative des produits agricoles, Loi sur la)
Act providing for support for cooperative sales of agricultural products. Royal Assent in 1939; still in effect, but inoperative: the sections of the Agricultural Marketing Programs Act (AMPA) repealing this act are not in effect, but the transitional measures included in the AMPA render it inoperative.
Agricultural Products Marketing Act
(Commercialisation des produits agricoles, Loi sur la)
Act granting certain federal powers to provincial marketing boards to enable them to improve the marketing conditions for agricultural products. Authorizes those boards to exercise, for interprovincial trade and export, the same powers as the provincial statutes confer on them for intraprovincial trade. Minister responsible: Minister of Agriculture and Agri-Food. Royal Assent in 1949.
Agriculture and Agri-Food Administrative Monetary Penalties Act
(Sanctions administratives pécuniaires en matière d’agriculture et d’agroalimentaire, Loi sur les)
Act establishing a system of administrative monetary penalties for the enforcement of a certain number of acts pertaining to agriculture and agri-food, in particular those controlling food quality and safety (Canada Agricultural Products Act, Meat Inspection Act, Seeds Act, etc.), the Farm Debt Mediation Act and the Pest Control Products Act. Royal Assent in 1995. Minister responsible: Minister of Agriculture and Agri-Food.
Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada (AAFC)
(Agriculture et Agroalimentaire Canada (AAC))
Department overseeing government services relating to the agriculture and agri-food industry. Its mission is to promote the growth, stability and competitiveness of the agri-food sector. New name of the Department of Agriculture since 1993.
Agri-Food R&D Matching Investment Initiative
(Partage des frais pour l’investissement en R. D., Programme de)
Program introduced in 1994 and terminated in 2004. Its purpose was to conduct research projects by sharing the costs with the agri-food sector, generally on a 50 50 basis. Annual budget of approximately $26 million from the Canadian Adaptation and Rural Development Fund (CARD). More than 3,000 research projects were carried out, involving more than 1,400 agri-food sector partners.
Agri-Innovation Program
(Innovation en agroalimentaire, Programme d’)
Financial assistance program designed to support organizations wishing to locate, evaluate or develop new, innovative agri-food products (e.g., pilot processing activities). Introduced in 2004 for four years.
Agricultural Income Disaster Assistance.
Amber box
(Boîte orange)
In the context of trade negotiations at the World Trade Organization (WTO), means agriculture support measures considered as distorting trade. Example: Price support program.
Animal Pedigree Act
(Généalogie des animaux, Loi sur la)
Act providing for the establishment of animal pedigree associations authorized to register and determine animals of significant value. Minister responsible: Minister of Agriculture and Agri-food. Royal Assent in 1988.
Antidumping duty
(Droit antidumping)
Additional import duties levied by a country in response to the dumping of imported products, when those imports cause injury to the industry of the importer country. Are generally equal to the difference between the export price of the goods and their normal value.
Agricultural Policy Framework.
Advance Payments Program.
Assistance for Canada’s Grains and Oilseeds Producers
(Aide financière pour les producteurs canadiens de céréales et d’oléagineux)
Ad hoc emergency assistance of $755 million announced in November 2005 to offset the negative effects of the economic situation in the field crops industry (poor weather conditions, subsidies to American and European producers, increased energy costs, etc.). Payments calculated on the basis of grain and oilseed sales. Wholly funded by the federal government.
Avian influenza
(Grippe aviaire)
Contagious disease striking a number of species of birds and caused by an influenza virus. Most strains of the virus are low-grade pathogens, and infected birds show few or no symptoms. Some strains may mutate, become highly pathogenic and cause high mortality. Sub-types H5 and H7 are the only ones that have been recognized as having become highly pathogenic among bird species. May cause disease in human beings in cases of prolonged contact with a contaminated environment. Was present in Canada prior to the 1970s and has since been rarely found.
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Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt)
(Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt)
Bacterium present in the soil. Used as a pesticide particularly in organic farming. Produces proteins that are toxic for certain insects. There are thousands of strains, each one toxic for one or more insect groups. See also: Bt plant.
Best management practices
(Pratiques exemplaires de gestion)
Synonym: Better management practices.
Better management practices
(Meilleures pratiques de gestion)
Set of agricultural practices for optimizing production yield while minimizing risk to human beings and the environment associated with those practices. Synonyms: Good agricultural practices, Best management practices.
Gradual accumulation over time of pollutants in the bodies of plants and animals. A bioaccumulable pollutant is transformed very slowly, or not at all, into components that can be eliminated by the body. In most cases, this is done through the alimentary canal in land animals. Synonym: Biological accumulation.
Biofuel produced from oil (used cooking oil or extracted from plants or animal fat) that is processed to obtain organic components (esters), which are mixed with diesel or used as is. Vegetable oil, directly mixed with diesel or burned alone in modified diesel engines, is not considered a biofuel.
Means the variety of life forms on earth. Differs from genetic diversity (individual variability within a single species), species diversity (number of species and their populations and distribution within an ecosystem) and ecosystem diversity (variety of habitats). Synonym: Biological diversity.
Fuels produced from renewable resources (plants, organic waste), which can be substituted for fossil fuels (oil, gas). May be used to reduce air pollution in part. See also: Ethanol and Biodiesel.
Biological accumulation
(Accumulation biologique)
Synonym: Bioaccumulation.
Biological diversity
(Diversité biologique)
Synonym: Biodiversity.
Biological pesticide
(Pesticide biologique)
Synonym: Biopesticide.
Organic pesticide, as opposed to a synthetic chemical product. Examples: Bacteria, pheromones, substances naturally present in plants. The bacterium Bt is a biopesticide. Synonym: Biological pesticide.
Residues from the treatment of industrial or municipal waste water. Also called treatment sludge. May be used as a source of organic matter for soil or as fertilizer.
Application of science or engineering to the use of living organisms or their parts or products, in natural or modified form. Covers a broad range of processes, from fermentation (e.g., use of yeast to make bread rise) to modern methods such as genetic engineering.
Blue blox
(Boîte bleue)
In the context of trade negotiations at the World Trade Organization (WTO), means agriculture support measures that have a minimum trade distortion effect. Example: direct payments related to production factors such as number of animals or hectares.
Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE)
(Encéphalopathie spongiforme bovine (ESB))
Transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE), affecting cattle. Appeared in the United Kingdom in the 1980s. First diagnosed in an animal born in Canada in 2003. Mainly transmissible through feed containing animal products infected with the disease. Transmissible to other species, including human beings. Synonym: Mad cow disease.
Bovine tuberculosis
(Tuberculose bovine)
Contagious disease caused by an infection that spreads to certain organs, including the lungs. Spreads through inhalation of dust to which the infectious agent attaches itself or through consumption of non-pasteurized milk. Transmissible to human beings. Canada is tuberculosis-free, except in the area around Riding Mountain National Park (Manitoba), where the disease persists in wild animal populations.
See: Blue box, Amber box, Green box.
British Columbia Grain Handling Operations Act
(Manutention des grains en Colombie-Britannique, Loi sur la)
Back-to-work legislation, ordering the resumption and continuation of grain-handling operations at the ports of Vancouver and Prince Rupert, British Columbia. Royal Assent in 1991.
Broker Program
(Courtage, Programme de)
Financial assistance program designed to support “brokerage” organizations and activities related to the agricultural sector, industry, government and universities in order to establish opportunities for innovation in agriculture. Introduced in 2004 for four years.
Bovine spongiform encephalopathy.
BSE Recovery Program
(Redressement de l’industrie dans le sillage de l’ESB, Programme de)
Ad hoc assistance program established in response to the closing of borders to Canadian beef following the discovery of a case of bovine spongiform encephalopath (BSE) in 2003. Its purpose was to provide compensation for income losses caused by the decline in market prices. Each producer received a payment per head of cattle owned as of 20 May 2003, if it had been sold and slaughtered in Canada. Slaughterhouses also received incentives to sell meat surpluses produced after 20 May 2003. The total cost of the program was estimated at $520 million, funded 60% by the federal government, 40% by the provinces.
Bt plant
(Plante Bt)
Plant containing a gene from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). The gene causes the plant to produce a specific toxin that is lethal to certain insects.
Business risk management programs
(Gestion des risques, Programmes de)
Under the Agricultural Policy Framework, includes all programs that assist producers in managing the risks related to agricultural production, such as production insurance, the Advance Payments Program and the Canadian Agricultural Income Stabilization Program.
Butteroil blends
(Huile de beurre, mélange d’)
Mixture generally containing 49% butteroil and 51% sugar. Used as a substitute in manufacturing ice cream. As it is not subject to import duties protecting dairy products from foreign competition, imports of this mixture rose from 1.3 million kg in 1995 to 16.1 million kg in 2004.
Byrd Amendment
(Amendement Byrd)
U.S. act passed in 2000 (Continued Dumping and Subsidy Offset Act of 2000), requiring that the amounts of antidumping and countervailing duties collected by the United States be paid to U.S. producers who have filed a complaint. Violates the rules of the World Trade Organization (WTO), according to a WTO decision in 2003. Will be repealed on 1 October 2007.
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Canadian Agriculture and Food International Program.
Canadian Agri-food Trade Alliance.
Cairns Group
(Groupe de Cairns)
Coalition of 18 (in 2005) agricultural product exporter countries, including Canada, Argentina, Brazil and Australia. Formed in 1986, the group develops proposals in the context of trade negotiations at the World Trade Organization (WTO) in order to achieve more liberalized trade in agricultural products.
Canadian Agricultural Income Stabilization Program.
Canada Agricultural Products Act
(Produits agricoles au Canada, Loi sur les)
Act making it possible to control the quality and safety of certain agricultural products (dairy products, whole and processed eggs, fresh and processed fruits and vegetables, honey, maple syrup) imported or produced in Canada for interprovincial or international sale. Provides for the certification of processing facilities, and the institution of a national agricultural products inspection and classification system. Royal Assent in 1988. Minister responsible: Minister of Agriculture and Agri-Food. Administered by the Canadian Food Inspection Agency.
Canada Cooperatives Act
(Coopératives, Loi canadienne sur les)
Act governing the constitution of non-financial cooperatives active in more than one province. States ground rules for their governance, as well as the rights and obligations of their members. Minister responsible: Minister of Industry. Royal Assent in 1998; replaced the Cooperative Associations of Canada Act (assented to in 1970).
Canada Grain Act
(Grains du Canada, Loi sur les)
Act that confers on the Canadian Grain Commission (CGC) authority to regulate grain handling in Canada. Provides that the CGC shall, for the benefit of grain producers, set and enforce quality standards for Canadian grain, regulate grain handling in Canada and ensure grain reliability in domestic and foreign markets. Royal Assent in 1970. Revised a number of times, in particular in 1998, to establish an insurance system enabling special crop producers to protect themselves from non-payment of amounts owed them. Minister responsible: Minister of Agriculture and Agri-Food.
Canadian Adaptation and Rural Development Fund (CARD)
(Fonds canadien d’adaptation et de développement rural (FCADR))
Initiative introduced in 1995 at a cost of $60 million a year to facilitate the adaptation of the agricultural sector and rural environment to the changing conditions in which they operate. Approximately $35 million was allocated to national programs and $25 million was administered by 13 provincial and territorial councils in order to fund individual initiatives in certain regions. Replaced in 2004 by the Advancing Canadian Agriculture and Agri-Food Program.
Canadian Agricultural Income Stabilization Program (CAIS)
(Stabilisation du revenu agricole, Programme canadien de (PCSRA))
Income support program established in 2003. Government assistance is determined on the basis of a farm’s income loss relative to a reference income specific to the farm and the level of protection chosen by the farmer. Funded 60% by the federal government and 40% by the provinces.
Canadian Agricultural Skills Service
(Service canadien de développement des compétences en agriculture)
Program offering financial assistance to farmers and their spouses, enabling them to have their skills assessed and to obtain training in order to exploit new opportunities both on and off the farm. Federal-provincial program introduced in 2005.
Canadian Agriculture and Food International Program (CAFI)
(Programme international du Canada pour l’agriculture et l’alimentation (PICAA))
Program introduced in 2004, replacing the Agri-Food Trade Program. Provides financial assistance equal to funds invested by the industry to support initiatives for raising and promoting Canada’s reputation as a supplier of healthy, innovative agri-food products of superior quality. Also supports initiatives designed to expand the Canadian industry’s access to foreign markets.
Canadian Agri-Food Policy Institute (CAPI)
(Institut canadien des politiques agro-alimentaires (ICPA))
Non-profit corporation created in 2003. Constitutes a forum on policies concerning the agri-food industry. Managed by a board of directors consisting of seven directors (former civil servants, academics, industry representatives, etc.) and an advisory committee of 12 members belonging to industrial groups, non-government organizations, policy research networks and other organizations.
Canadian Agri-Food Research Council
(Conseil de recherches agro-alimentaires du Canada)
Non-profit organization, founded in 1974, responsible for coordinating research and technology transfer efforts in agriculture and agri-food. Coordinates the development and updating of codes of practice for the care and handling of farm animals. Has approximately 35 members, drawn from the industry, the university community and public administrations.
Canadian Agri-Food Trade Alliance (CAFTA)
(Alliance canadienne du commerce agroalimentaire (ACCA))
Coalition of provincial and national organizations and businesses. Committed to more open and fair trade in the agriculture and agri-food sector. Its members account for nearly 80% of Canada’s agricultural and agri-food exports.
Canadian Animal Health Consultative Committee
(Comité consultatif canadien sur la santé des animaux)
Forum for discussion on animal health issues. Contributes to the review, development and implementation of animal health policies and programs. Consists of national representatives of the industry, federal-provincial animal health authorities, national animal health and welfare organizations, deans of veterinary colleges and guests such as the U.S. Department of Agriculture.
Canadian Biotechnology Advisory Committee (CBAC)
(Comité consultatif canadien de la biotechnologie (CCCB))
Organization that advises the federal government on the ethical, social, regulatory, economic, scientific, environmental and health aspects of biotechnology. Created in 1999 and consisting of private sector specialists (universities, industries) appointed for three years.
Canadian Broiler Hatching Egg Marketing Agency
(Office canadien de commercialisation des œufs d’incubation de poulet à chair)
National organization established in 1986 under the Farm Products Agencies Act. Represents the interests of Canadian producers of broiler hatching eggs and manages the hatching egg supply management system at the national level.
Canadian Cattle Identification Agency
(Agence canadienne d’identification du bétail)
Private organization responsible for implementation of the Canadian Cattle Identification Program. Directed by a board consisting of representatives of all the cattle industry sectors. The Canadian Food Inspection Agency and Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada are ex-officio members. Created in 1998.
Canadian Cattle Identification Program
(Identification du bétail, Programme canadien d’)
Program that identifies each cow that leaves its farm of origin. Makes it possible to track animals in case of disease outbreak. Introduced in 2001 and mandatory since 2002 under the Animal Health Regulations. Under the responsibility of the Canadian Food Inspection Agency, and implemented by Agri-Traçabilité Québec in Quebec and the Canadian Cattle Identification Agency in the rest of the country.
Canadian Cattlemen’s Association
(Association canadienne des éleveurs)
National organization created in 1932 to represent the interests of Canadian cattle producers.
Canadian Climate Impacts and Adaptation Research Network (C-CIARN)
(Réseau canadien de recherche sur les impacts climatiques et l’adaptation (C-CIARN))
National network established in 1999 facilitating the acquisition and dissemination of new knowledge on climate change adaptation. Consists of six regional networks and seven national sectoral networks, including one on agriculture, linking scientists and partners across the country. Funded by the Canadian Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation Program.
Canadian Council of Grocery Distributors
(Conseil canadien des distributeurs en alimentation)
National organization representing the interests of the grocery distribution industry. Its members represent 80% of the total volume of grocery product distribution (foods, non-food products and non-alcoholic beverages) in Canada.
Canadian Dairy Commission (CDC)
(Commission canadienne du lait (CCL))
Crown corporation established in 1966 by the Canadian Dairy Commission Act. Its mandate is to coordinate federal and provincial dairy policies and to create a dairy production control mechanism in order to stabilize income and prevent production surpluses. Composed of three commissioners appointed by the Governor in Council for renewable three-year terms. Funded by the federal government.
Canadian Dairy Commission Act
(Commission canadienne du lait, Loi sur la)
Act establishing the Canadian Dairy Commission (CDC) and defining its mandate. Provides for the regulation of dairy production quotas in Canada. Royal Assent in 1966. Amended in 1995 to give the CDC the right to administer certain classes of milk, the price of which is set on the basis of international competition. Minister responsible: Minister of Agriculture and Agri-Food.
Canadian Egg Marketing Agency
(Office canadien de commercialisation des œufs)
National organization established in 1972 under the Farm Products Agencies Act. Represents the interests of egg producers and manages the egg supply management system at the national level.
Canadian Farm Business Advisory Services
(Services-conseils aux exploitations agricoles canadiennes )
Program providing financial assistance to farmers wishing to make use of professional services to assess their financial situation, set objectives and prepare plans to achieve those objectives. Consists of two parts: Farm Business Assessment, which assesses the farm’s financial situation and develops action plans; and Specialized Business Planning Services (SBPS), which assists in developing business plans in various areas such as succession, accrual accounting, business development and diversification. Introduced in 2004.
Canadian Farm Business Management Council
(Conseil canadien de la gestion d’entreprise agricole)
Non-profit agency devoted to the development and distribution of specialized information on farm management in Canada. Funded in part by Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada. Directed by a board of directors consisting of nine members (four agricultural producers, four provincial government representatives and one private sector representative).
Canadian Farm Income Program (CFIP)
(Revenu agricole, Programme canadien du (PCRA)
Program introduced in 2000 to replace the Agricultural Income Disaster Assistance program. A payment was made when the producer’s gross margin fell below 70% of the average margin over the previous five years (after eliminating the highest and lowest margins in those years). Implemented in the 2000, 2001 and 2002 fiscal years. Funded 60% by the federal government and 40% by the provinces.
Canadian Federation of Agriculture (CFA)
(Fédération canadienne de l’agriculture (FCA))
National organization founded in 1935 to represent provincial producers associations and national and interprovincial specialized producer groups. Through its members, represents more than 200,000 Canadian farmers.
Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA)
(Agence canadienne d’inspection des aliments (ACIA))
Organization under the responsibility of the Minister of Agriculture and Agri-Food. Provides all federal inspection services respecting food, animal health and plant protection. Administers 13 acts and related regulations. Monitors, among other things, compliance with food health standards developed by Health Canada. Created in 1997.
Canadian Food Inspection Agency Act
(Agence canadienne d’inspection des aliments, Loi sur l’)
Act creating the Canadian Food Inspection Agency and grouping all food and animal and plant health inspection services within a single agency. Royal Assent in 1997. Minister responsible: Minister of Agriculture and Agri-Food.
Canadian Food Safety Quality Program
(Salubrité et de qualité des aliments, Programme canadien de)
Program announced in 2003 and given a budget of $62 million for five years. Provides financial assistance for projects promoting the development and implementation of national government-recognized systems in the area of food safety and quality assurance and traceability.
Canadian General Standards Board
(Office des normes générales du Canada)
Agency of the Department of Public Works and Government Services. Provides standards development and compliance evaluation services, in particular for product certification programs. In particular, has supervised the development of Canadian standards for organic farming and voluntary labelling and advertising of foods, whether or not they are the result of genetic engineering. Created in 1934.
Canadian Grain Commission (CGC)
(Commission canadienne des grains (CCG))
Federal agency exercising its powers under the Canada Grain Act and responsible for the regulation and handling of grains in Canada, as well as the establishment and maintenance of quality standards for Canadian grains and oilseeds. Since 1992, has been able to recover more than 90% of its costs from the fees it collects for the provision of its services to the grain industry.
Canadian Horticultural Council
(Conseil canadien de l’horticulture)
Organization created in 1922 to represent the interests of horticultural producers (fruits, vegetables, flowers and ornamental plants).
Canadian Livestock Identification Agency
(Agence canadienne d’identification des animaux d’élevage)
Non-profit organization founded in 2004 with a mandate to advance initiatives for the identification and traceability of various animal species in Canada (bison, cattle, sheep, hogs, horses and goats). The breeders associations, the Canadian Meat Council and the Canadian Veterinary Medical Association are represented on the board of directors as voting members; Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada and the Canadian Food Inspection Agency are ex-officio members.
Canadian Meat Council
(Conseil canadien des viandes)
National organization representing the interests of slaughterhouses and red meat producers with federal registration.
Canadian Pork Council
(Conseil canadien du porc)
National organization created in 1966 representing the interests of Canadian pork producers.
Canadian Rural Information Service
(Service canadien de l’information rurale)
Program of the Rural Secretariat. Provides an information service to the inhabitants of rural areas on economic, social and environmental issues, such as information on government programs and rural tourism, business start up resources, etc. Introduced in 1995.
Canadian Rural Partnership
(Partenariat rural canadien)
Interdepartmental policy introduced in 1998 and coordinated by the Rural Secretariat, designed to support the federal government in developing rural Canada. Includes programs such as Rural Lens and Rural Dialogue. Until 2002, also included four financial assistance programs to support the development of rural communities.
Canadian Turkey Marketing Agency
(Office canadien de commercialisation du dindon)
National organization established in 1974 under the Farm Products Agencies Act. Represents the interests of Canadian turkey producers and manages the turkey supply management system at the national level.
Canadian Veterinary Medical Association
(Association canadienne des médecins vétérinaires)
National organization representing the interests of the veterinary profession in Canada.
Canadian Wheat Board (CWB)
(Commission canadienne du blé (CCB))
Marketing agency created in 1935 under the Canadian Wheat Board Act. Only organization authorized to market wheat and barley produced in western Canada. Since 1998, has been directed by a board of directors of 15 persons, 10 of whom are elected by producers. Receives federal government guarantees for a certain number of financial transactions (payment on delivery, loans).
Canadian Wheat Board Act
(Commission canadienne du blé, Loi sur la)
Act defining the mandate of the Canadian Wheat Board (CWB), which is “marketing in an orderly manner, in interprovincial and export trade, grain grown in Canada.” Royal Assent in 1935. Extensively amended in 1998 to provide farmers with more powers in the CWB’s management.
Common Agricultural Policy.
Canadian Agri-Food Policy Institute.
Capital value
Value of animals, machinery and other equipment, land and real property. See also: Depreciation.
Chemical element (C), the essential constituent of all biological matter. Greenhouse gas in the form of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4).
Carbon sequestration
(Séquestration du carbone)
Natural process whereby atmospheric carbon is transferred to a carbon storage reservoir such as soils, forests or oceans. May contribute to reducing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations. See also: Carbon sink.
Carbon sink
(Puits de carbone)
A reservoir that absorbs more atmospheric carbon (CO2) than it releases. A growing forest, farmlands managed in certain ways and oceans constitute carbon sinks. See also: Carbon sequestration.
Canadian Adaptation and Rural Development Fund.
Carry forward
(Utilisation anticipée)
In international trade, use by an exporting country during the current year of a portion of the quota allotted it for the following year.
In international trade, means a practice enabling an exporting country to use an unused quota from the previous year.
Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety
(Protocole de Cartagena sur la prévention des risques biotechnologiques)
Protocol related to the Convention on Biological Diversity signed at the UN Conference on the Environment and Development in 1992. Designed to protect biodiversity from the potential risks posed by living modified organisms (LMOs). Regulates transborder movements of LMOs. Text adopted in 2000 and entered into force in 2003. Signed in 2001 by Canada, which has not yet ratified it.
Canadian Biotechnology Advisory Committee.
Canadian Climate Impacts and Adaptation Research Network.
Canadian Dairy Commission.
Cooperative Development Initiative.
Census of agriculture
(Recensement de l’agriculture)
Survey conducted by Statistics Canada every five years to gather data on a large number of characteristics of Canadian farms. Each farm completes a form, and the database is linked to that of the population census. The last census was conducted in 2001.
Canadian Food Inspection Agency.
Canadian Farm Income Program.
Canadian Grain Commission.
Amount of money collected on the price paid to the producer. The amounts collected are used by agricultural associations to fund promotion or research activities.
Chicken Farmers of Canada
(Les Producteurs de poulets du Canada)
National organization founded in 1978 under the Farm Products Agencies Act. Represents the interests of Canadian chicken producers and manages the chicken supply management system at the national level.
Cellular structure, which notably includes genes. With the exception of sex cells, human cells contain 23 pairs of chromosomes, of which one set comes from the father, the other from the mother.
Chronic wasting disease (CWD)
(Encéphalopathie des cervidés)
Transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE), which afflicts the white-tailed deer, mule deer and elk. First observed in Colorado in 1967. Since 1996, diagnosed on farms in Saskatchewan and Alberta. Transmissible by animals and the environment (farm buildings); apparently not transmissible to human beings.
Climate change
(Changement climatique)
Long-term changes in climate characteristics (average and extreme meteorological conditions calculated over a long period of time) at a given location. On a planetary scale, these changes are caused by various phenomena (solar activity, volcanic eruptions, increased greenhouse gas concentrations).
Climate change adaptation
(Adaptation au changement climatique)
Adaptation of economic and social activities to improve their viability and reduce their vulnerability to climate change. In agriculture, includes short-term tactics in reaction to a situation, such as restricting irrigation during periods of drought, and longer-term strategies such as promoting water conservation in regions where shortages are predicted.
Production of an organism possessing the same genetic make up as another organism, living or dead. This phenomenon commonly occurs in nature (identical twins among humans, self-fertilization among certain plants). The laboratory procedure designed to duplicate DNA fragments may also be called cloning.
Codex Alimentarius
(Codex Alimentarius)
International organization created in 1963 and funded by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the World Health Organization. Establishes food products standards on which states can agree in order to protect consumers’ health. Consists, among other things, of a commission of all member countries, which makes final decisions on whether to adopt standards. Its standards carry no legal weight, but, according to the Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures Agreemen (SPS), they can be consulted where the World Trade Organizatio (WTO) must arbitrate trade disputes caused by scientific disagreements. Head office in Rome, Italy.
Common Agricultural Policy (CAP)
(Politique agricole commune (PAC))
Agricultural assistance policy of the European Union (EU). Introduced in the 1950s to guarantee the EU food self-sufficiency, in particular by supporting the prices paid to producers. Reformed a number of times since the 1980s to include rural development and environmental protection objectives, while supporting farmers so that they may enjoy a reasonable standard of living.
Process recognized by the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) for declaring an animal sub-population free of disease and the object of international trade. The animal population is defined (compartmentalized) using management criteria. For example, in a cattle population of a country infected with foot and mouth disease, animals of high genetic value could be kept and transported to places and in vehicles which the disease cannot penetrate as a result of proven biosafety measures. Compare: Regionalization.
Process of transforming organic matter such as agricultural waste into natural fertilizer.
Concentration, economic
(Concentration économique)
Concentration of economic agents (mergers, acquisitions) which has the effect of reducing the number of players in a specific market. Very pronounced phenomenon in the agri-food sector, particularly in the input and distribution industries, where a small number of companies share the market.
Conservation tillage
(Pratiques culturales de conservation du sol)
Any agricultural practice designed to minimize soil and water loss.
Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research
(Groupe Consultatif pour la Recherche Agricole Internationale)
Alliance supporting 15 International Agricultural Research Centres. Created in 1971, the group represents a number of countries, international and regional organizations and private foundations. Its research findings are public and universally accessible.
Consumer Packaging and Labelling Act
(Emballage et l’étiquetage des produits de consommation, Loi sur l’)
Act regulating the labels affixed to pre-packaged consumer products. Prohibits the provision of false or misleading information and states what information must appear on labelling. Administered by the Canadian Food Inspection Agency for the packaging and labelling of food. Minister responsible: Minister of Industry. Royal Assent in 1971.
Continuous cropping
(Culture continue)
Agricultural practice consisting in cultivating one plot of land each year without leaving a fallow year, or cultivating the same plant species on the same plot from one year to the next.
Conventional agriculture
(Agriculture conventionnelle)
Type of agriculture relying on practices popularized during the green revolution (1945 1970) such as the systematic use of pesticides, chemical fertilizer and agricultural equipment. For example, tillage is a conventional agricultural practice, but not zero tillage, even though reduced tillage has become a dominant practice on the Prairies.
Country of origin labelling.
Form of business in which individuals associate with each other to carry on an economic activity that serves their interests. The rights of each partner in the management of the business are generally equal and profit is divided among them.
Cooperative Development Initiative (CDI)
(Initiative de développement coopératif (IDC))
Program designed to support the development of cooperatives. The “advisory service” component of the program, which is administered jointly by the Canadian Co operative Association and the Conseil Canadien de la Coopération, offers technical assistance in creating new cooperatives and in the management of existing cooperatives. The purpose of the “innovation and research” component, which is administered by the Co-operatives Secretariat, is to study new applications of the cooperative model. Created in 2003 for five years.
Co-operatives Secretariat
(Secrétariat aux coopératives)
Entity established in 1987 within Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada to advise the government on cooperatives policies and to coordinate implementation of those policies. See also: Cooperative Development Initiative.
Cost recovery
(Recouvrement des coûts)
Federal policy established in 1997 to recover costs from private entities (rather than the general public) that derive a personal benefit from certain government services. In agriculture, this applies, among other things, to grain classification services, the inspection of agri-food processing facilities, etc. See also: User fees.
Countervailing measure
(Mesure compensatoire)
Measure taken by an importing country, generally in the form of an import duty, to offset subsidies granted in the exporting country where imports cause injury to the industry of the importing country.
Country of Origin Labelling (COOL)
(Étiquetage du pays d’origine)
Provision of the U.S. Farm Bill of 2002 requiring retailers to inform their clients of the country of origin of certain farm products. Viewed by some countries, including Canada, as a means of restricting trade.
Cow-calf operator
Producer of calves marketed after weaning and intended for fattening.
Crop insurance
Program of insurance in the event of crop failures caused by natural disasters. Created in 1959 and replaced in 2003 by the Production insurance program.
Crop rotation
(Rotation des cultures)
Agricultural practice in which a regular succession of different crops are planted on the same land area, as opposed to growing the same crop time after time (Monoculture). Normally used to increase soil fertility, reduce parasite populations and improve yield in subsequent years.
(Contamination croisée)
The contact of a product with a prohibited ingredient before, during or after its manufacture. In the animal feed industry, authorities want to avoid cross-contamination of feed for ruminants with meat and bone meals. See also: Feed ban (1997).
Crow Benefit
(Subvention du Nid-de-corbeau)
Other name for the Western Grain Transportation Subsidy. Its title derives from that of the Crow’s Nest Pass Agreement of 1897, which set a limit on the grain transportation rate in exchange for subsidies for construction of the railway. The federal government subsequently decided, in 1925, to set transportation rates for grain intended for export, then created the Western Grain Transportation Subsidy program in 1983. When it was eliminated in 1995, it was one of the oldest forms of agricultural subsidy in the world.
Cull Animal Program
(Animaux de réforme, Programme relatif aux)
Program designed to assist producers in managing the surplus of aged animals that appeared following discovery of a case of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in 2003. It was initially provided that an amount of $320 would be paid for each cull cow sold. In February 2004, the government changed the program’s administration and decided to make a payment for a fixed percentage of the number of animals per herd aged more than 30 months as of 1 September 2003. Only the four Atlantic provinces agreed to fund 40% of the program (with the federal government funding 60%); for the other provinces, the program was wholly funded by the federal government.
Cull cow
(Vache de réforme)
Dairy or breeder cow at the end of its production cycle that the farmer removes from the herd and replaces with a younger cow. Generally slaughtered for ground beef production.
Group of plants of a single species that differ from other varieties of the same species by their specific characteristics (structure, seed composition, disease resistance). Synonym: Plant variety.
Canadian Wheat Board.
Chronic wasting disease.
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Dairy Farmers of Canada
(Les Producteurs laitiers du Canada)
National organization created in 1934 representing the interests of Canadian dairy producers.
Dairy subsidy
(Subvention laitière)
Payment made to dairy farmers for their industrial milk and cream production intended for the domestic market in order to reduce the price paid by consumers. Existed before the Canadian Dairy Commission took charge of its administration in 1967. The amount of the subsidy was continually reduced until the end of the program in 2002. Wholly funded by the federal government.
Dairy terms
(Termes laitiers)
Names, appellations, symbols, images or other means for designating milk and dairy products.
Principle that monetary assistance provided to farmers is not dependent on quantities produced. Designed to reduce the influence that government assistance can have on farmers’ production decisions.
Department of Agriculture and Agri-Food Act
(Ministère de l’Agriculture et de l’Agroalimentaire, Loi sur le)
Act recognizing the Department of Agriculture and Agri-Food as a Canadian federal department. States the Minister’s areas of jurisdiction. Royal Assent in 1868.
Loss of capital value.
Direct marketing
(Vente directe)
Marketing of agricultural products directly to the final consumer, whether it be at the farm gate, in a market or in any place not requiring the intervention of an intermediary between the producer and consumer.
Direct payment
(Paiement direct)
Financial assistance paid directly to the producer, the amount of which is generally based on certain production factors (number of animals, cultivable area, etc.).
Direct seeding
(Semis direct)
Seeding by means of a seeder which directly plants the seeds in the soil without prior tillage. Synonym: Zero tillage.
Disaster Financial Assistance
(Aide financière en cas de catastrophe)
Agreements between the federal government and the provinces, in existence since 1970, under which the federal government provides financial assistance to provincial governments where the cost of measures taken to cope with a disaster represents an excessive burden on the economy of the province concerned. Eligible assistance covers a broad range of costs, including the rehabilitation of small businesses such as farm businesses.
Strategy promoting the production of a range of plants and animals and their products, as opposed to monoculture and specialization.
Deoxyribonucleic acid. Chemical compound that is the main constituent of genes.
Domestic support
(Soutien interne)
Set of government measures that assist farmers. Includes income support programs. Export subsidies are generally not considered domestic support measures. The World Trade Organization (WTO) classifies these measures on the basis of their effects on trade. See: Blue box, Amber box, Green box.
Agricultural technique designed to improve the productivity of farmland by removing excess water from soil by methods such as trenches, drainage ditches and underground pipes.
Trade practice consisting in exporting a good at a price lower than its normal value, that is to say (1) the price at which it is sold on the domestic market or in the markets of third countries, or (2) the production cost.
Duty, customs
(Droit de douane)
Synonym: Duty, import.
Duty, import
(Droit d’importation)
Amount levied by a country on the value of imported goods. Provides a price advantage for similar local products and a source of government revenues. Synonyms: Duty, customs; tariff.
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Environmental Certification Program
(Certification environnementale, Programme de)
Third component of the National Environmental Farm Planning Initiative created in 2004. Designed to develop a framework for certifying that a farm business is using beneficial practices or practices that do not harm the environment (environmental certification). Provides that this framework will be in effect in 2008 and that environmental certification can be made available to producers at that time.
Environmental farm plan
(Plan environnemental de la ferme)
A set of procedures put in place at a farm to control the impact of agricultural practices on the environment. May also contain objectives for reducing the environmental effects of agricultural practices.
Environmental Protection Acts
(Protection de l’environnement, Lois relatives à la)
Set of federal acts regulating certain aspects of agricultural production in accordance with their objective of protecting the environment. Includes the Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA), the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act, the Fisheries Act and the Endangered Species Act.
Epizootic or Outbreak
Disease affecting a large number of animals at the same time. Equivalent of the term epidemic used for humans.
In agriculture, transportation of soil from one place to another by the action of water, wind or tillage practices. Causes loss of agricultural soil and a decline in soil productivity, and aids in the dispersion of pollutants (pesticides, etc.).
Alcohol derived from the fermentation of sugar sources, including plants. May be mixed with ordinary gasoline to obtain a biofuel. The ethanol produced in Canada for use in fuels is derived from wheat and corn, or plant residues (cellulose). Fuel mixes containing 5% ethanol do not require engine adjustments. In Brazil, such fuels contain 25% ethanol, and their use requires engine adjustments.
Loss of water from plants and soil into the atmosphere through evaporation from the surface of the earth and through plant transpiration. Process essential to the water cycle.
Exorcist technology
(Exorcist, technologie)
System inserted in a genetically modified plant enabling that plant to produce seeds that the genetic modification does not present. Uses a protein that cuts every DNA fragment located between two markers. See also: Genetic use restriction technologies.
Experimental Farm Stations Act
(Stations agronomiques, Loi sur les)
Act permitting the establishment of experimental farm stations across Canada and giving the staff of those stations the mandate to conduct research in agriculture-related fields. Royal Assent in 1886. Minister responsible: Minister of Agriculture and Agri-Food.
Export subsidy
(Subvention à l’exportation)
Advantage given to a business by a government that makes exports artificially competitive. Since such subsidies cause trade distortions, the negotiation framework of the World Trade Organization (WTO) states that all forms of export subsidies must be eliminated.
Extension services
(Service de vulgarisation)
Organization that communicates and provides information on technical and technological innovations to farmers. Synonym: Advisory service.
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Family farm
(Exploitation familiale)
Farm managed by a family or an extended family whose members own the farm.
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.
Farm cash receipts
(Recettes monétaires agricoles)
Measure of a farm’s turnover. Total of receipts from sales of agricultural products (animals, animal products, crops, etc.) and payments from government programs.
Farm Credit Canada (FCC)
(Financement agricole Canada (FAC))
Crown corporation formerly known as the “Farm Credit Corporation,” whose mission is to promote the growth of the Canadian agricultural sector by providing specialized financial services to farms. Created in 1959 under the Farm Credit Corporation Act. Financially self-sufficient.
Farm Credit Canada Act
(Financement agricole Canada, Loi sur)
Act defining the mission, powers and organization of Farm Credit Canada. New name (since 2001) for the Farm Credit Corporation Act, which received Royal Assent in 1959. Minister responsible: Minister of Agriculture and Agri-Food.
Farm Credit Corporation
(Société du crédit agricole)
See: Farm Credit Canada.
Farm debt
(Endettement agricole)
Total of current debt and long-term liabilities.
Farm Debt Mediation Act
(Médiation en matière d’endettement agricole, Loi sur la)
Act intended to facilitate mediation between insolvent farmers and their creditors. Administered by the Farm Debt Mediation Service. Minister responsible: Minister of Agriculture and Agri-Food. Royal Assent in 1997. Replaced the Farm Debt Review Act.
Farm Debt Mediation Service
(Service de médiation en matière d’endettement agricole)
Program introduced under the Farm Debt Mediation Act. Provides insolvent farmers and their creditors with mediation services for the purpose of entering into a financial arrangement acceptable to both parties. In effect since 1998.
Farm gate price
(Prix à la production)
Price paid to the agricultural producer for his or her product.
Farm Improvement and Marketing Cooperatives Loans Act
(Prêts destinés aux améliorations agricoles et à la commercialisation selon la formule coopérative, Loi sur les)
Act authorizing the federal government to guarantee loans granted to farmers and cooperatives by financial institutions. Replaced the Farm Improvement Loans Act. Minister responsible: Minister of Agriculture and Agri-Food. See also: Farm Improvement and Marketing Cooperatives Loans Act Program.
Farm Improvement and Marketing Cooperatives Loans Act Program
(Loi sur les prêts destinés aux améliorations agricoles et à la commercialisation selon la formule coopérative, Programme en vertu de la)
Producer loan guarantee program. Designed to facilitate access to credits for farmers and their marketing cooperatives. Created in 1988 and extended until 31 March 2006. Wholly funded by the federal government.
Farm Improvement Loans Act
(Prêts destinés aux améliorations agricoles, Loi sur les )
Act authorizing the federal government to guarantee borrowers the losses suffered as a result of loans taken out in accordance with its provisions and regulations. Royal Assent in 1944. Replaced in 1987 by the Farm Improvement and Marketing Cooperatives Loans Act Program. Still in effect for guarantees for non-reimbursed loans. Minister responsible: Minister of Agriculture and Agri-Food.
Farm income
(Revenu agricole)
Generic term meaning the financial gain made by a farm or the agricultural sector as a whole. Differs from net cash income, net operating income, realized net income and total net income.
Farm Income Payment Program
(Paiements relatifs au revenu agricole, Programme de )
Ad hoc financial assistance for farms of approximately $1 billion announced in March 2005. A portion of the assistance was provided in the form of a direct payment to all eligible Canadian producers (excluding products under supply management), and another portion was paid in the form of direct payments solely to cattle and ruminant producers (including dairy producers) affected by the situation caused by the discovery of a case of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE).
Farm Income Protection Act
(Protection du revenu agricole, Loi sur la)
Act enabling the federal government to enter into agreements with the provinces to protect the incomes of agricultural producers and to take other measures for that purpose. Royal Assent in 1991. Minister responsible: Minister of Agriculture and Agri-Food.
Farm Products Agencies Act
(Offices des produits agricoles, Loi sur les)
Act creating the National Farm Products Council (NFPC) and enabling farm producers to develop national or regional marketing plans. Plans for managing the supply of products available in Canada are permitted only for eggs, poultry and tobacco. Minister responsible: Minister of Agriculture and Agri-Food. Royal Assent in 1972.
Farmer’s privilege
(Privilège de l’agriculteur)
Option for a farmer to use part of the harvest to seed his or her fields the following year. Intellectual property rights over plants do not permit full application of this privilege.
Farm Credit Canada.
Fed and Feeder Cattle Set-Aside Program
(Retrait des bovins gras et d’engraissement, Programme de)
Program introduced in 2004 as part of the Strategy to Reposition Canada’s Livestock Industry following the discovery of a case of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). Its purpose was to increase the price of cattle by managing the supply of animals based on slaughtering capacity in the country. Producers filed submissions on the price of the daily assistance that they were prepared to accept in return for not marketing certain animals for a given period. Program was terminated when the U.S. border reopened in July 2005. Funded by the federal government and participating provinces.
Fed cattle
(Bovin fini)
Cow that has reached the required weight for slaughtering. Synonym: Fat cattle. Compare: Feeder cattle.
Federal registration
(Enregistrement au fédéral)
Administration procedure applying to businesses that process and distribute, through interprovincial or international trade, products governed by the Canada Agricultural Products Act, the Meat Inspection Act and the Fish Inspection Act. These facilities are subject to a specific inspection system. Food facilities that are not federally registered are subject to a different inspection system.
Feed ban (1997)
(Interdiction de 1997 visant les aliments pour animaux)
Amendment to the Animal Health Regulations which came into force in 1997. Prohibits the use of animal protein (with the exception of protein from pork, horse meat, birds and fish) in ruminant feed. Measure designed to prevent the spread of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE).
Feed Freight Assistance
(Aide au transport des céréales fourragères)
Program of assistance for the transportation of grain intended for use as animal feed to regions not producing enough to meet their needs (British Columbia, Atlantic Region and others). Created in 1941 and terminated in 1995. Wholly funded by the federal government.
Feed Freight Assistance Adjustment Fund
(Fonds d’adaptation à la disparition de l’Aide au transport des céréales fourragères)
Funding program for initiatives to assist the breeding industry in adjusting to the new environment following cancellation of Feed Freight Assistance in 1995. Wholly funded by the federal government.
Feeder cattle
(Bovin d’engraissement)
Cow ready to enter the last phase of its production before slaughtering, fattening with the aid of high-energy foods. Compare: Fed cattle.
Feeds Act
(Aliments du bétail, Loi relative aux)
Act governing and regulating the sale of animal feed in Canada. Its purpose is to ensure that feeds manufactured and sold or imported to Canada are safe, effective and well labelled. Administered by the Canadian Food Inspection Agency. Minister responsible: Minister of Agriculture and Agri-Food. Royal Assent in 1960.
Substance added to the soil providing essential elements such as nitrogen, phosphate, potassium and micronutrients for plant growth. Examples: Manure, compost, mineral fertilizers.
Fertilizers Act
(Engrais, Loi sur les)
Act governing and regulating the sale of fertilizer in Canada. Requires product registration and permits the establishment of standards for, in particular, fertilizer safety, effectiveness and labelling. Administered by the Canadian Food Inspection Agency. Minister responsible: Minister of Agriculture and Agri-Food. Royal Assent in 1957.
Financial Administration Act
(Gestion des finances publiques, Loi sur la)
Act constituting the legal framework for the government’s general financial administration. Defines, among other things, the principles of the way in which program payments can be made. Authorizes payments in respect of loan guarantees. Royal Assent in 1951. Minister responsible: President of the Treasury Board.
Fish Inspection Act
(Inspection du poisson, Loi sur l’)
Act permitting the quality and safety control of fish and seafood products imported to or produced in Canada for interprovincial or international sale. Administered by the Canadian Food Inspection Agency. Minister responsible: Minister of Agriculture and Agri-Food. Royal Assent in 1949.
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)
(Organisation des Nations Unies pour l’alimentation et l’agriculture (FAO))
Specialized agency of the UN created in 1945 to improve nutritional levels, farm productivity and the quality of life of rural populations. Serves as an international forum for distributing information on agriculture and sharing policy expertise. Head office in Rome, Italy.
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Act
(Organisation des Nations Unies pour l’alimentation et l’agriculture, Loi sur l’)
Act implementing the agreement entered into between Canada and other countries to create the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Royal Assent in 1945.
Food and Consumer Products of Canada
(Produits alimentaires et de consommation du Canada)
National organization representing the interests of the food and other consumer products production industry.
Food and Drugs Act
(Aliments et drogues, Loi sur les)
Act forming the basis of the food safety system in Canada. In particular, requires that all food sold in the country be safe for consumption. Administered by Health Canada and the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (for certain provisions concerning food only). Minister responsible: Minister of Health. Royal Assent in 1953.
Food safety
(Salubrité des aliments)
Assurance that food is acceptable for human consumption and without risk to health when consumed in accordance with the use for which it is intended. Not to be confused with food security.
Food security
(Sécurité alimentaire)
Availability of and access to food of sufficient quantity and quality to meet the nutritional needs of a healthy and active life. Often wrongly used to mean a country’s self-sufficiency in basic food products. Not to be confused with food safety.
Foot and mouth disease
(Fièvre aphteuse)
Highly contagious disease afflicting ruminants and hogs. Caused by a virus that can spread over great distances (products in contact with the virus, wind, etc.). Causes fever and lesions, and weakens animals even once they have recovered. Does not constitute a public health problem, but results in significant production declines, which makes this a significant disease in economic terms. Canada has been free of foot and mouth disease since 1952.
Functional food
(Aliment fonctionnel)
Conventional food that has been modified to provide a health benefit (physiological benefits or a reduced risk of chronic disease) apart from its nutritional purposes. Compare: Nutraceutical.
Substance that destroys or inhibits the growth of fungi. See also: Pesticide.
Further processor
Agri-food facility that processes semi-finished agricultural products (meat, flour, etc.) into consumer-ready products (prepared meals, preserves, etc.). Term mainly used in the meat industry. Synonym: Secondary processor.
Fusarium head blight
Group of diseases caused by fungi of the Fusarium genus affecting numerous crops, including grains (wheat, barley, corn, etc.), tomatoes and potatoes. In western Canada, fusarium head blight is more frequently found in black soil areas; it is present in all grain-growing areas in eastern Canada.
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General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade. International agreement regulating international trade in goods. First signed in 1947. Incorporated since 1995 in the World Trade Organization (WTO) Agreements, its updated version constitutes the WTO agreement governing trade in goods. Includes a related series of agreements, including the Agreement on Agriculture and the Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures Agreement (SPS).
Basic element of heredity. Consisting of DNA and located in a chromosome. Its activation is necessary to all cellular function. It is estimated that humans have fewer than 30,000 genes.
Genetic engineering
(Génie génétique)
Set of techniques for isolating genetic material (DNA sequencing, gene, etc.), reproducing it and inserting it in a living organism in order to modify its genetic make up. Recombinant DNA technology is part of genetic engineering.
Genetic use restriction technologies (GURT)
(Technologies de restriction de l’utilisation des ressources génétiques)
Technologies preventing or limiting the duplication of biological material developed through biotechnology. In the seed industry, they are developed to prevent the spread of genetically modified characteristics to other plants or to the second generation of seeds (Terminator technology, Exorcist technology), or so that the new characteristic appears only in specific conditions (application of a product to the field, presence of a pest, etc.).
Genetically modified organism (GMO) or Genetically engineered organism (GEO)
(Organisme génétiquement modifié (OGM))
Organism – plant, animal or micro-organism (bacteria, fungus, etc.) – that has been produced through genetic engineering. In its regulatory instruments, Canada uses a broader definition – a GMO being, in particular, an organism that presents a new characteristic that has never been observed in that organism, regardless of the method used to obtain that new characteristic. Synonym: Genetically engineered organism (GEO), Transgenic organism.
Genetically modified wheat
(Blé génétiquement modifié)
Variety of wheat produced with the aid of genetic engineering. In 2002, Monsanto filed an approval application in Canada and the United States for a transgenic variety of wheat resistant to the herbicide Roundup (Roundup ready). However, the company decided to delay the commercial introduction of that variety until the market was prepared to accept it. See: Roundup ready crop variety.
Set of genetic material (genes) of an individual or species.
Geographical indication
(Indication géographique)
Names of places used to identify products that have a particular characteristic or reputation because they come from a particular place (e.g., “Champagne”). In certain countries, enjoys special protection limiting the use of the name and regulating the manufacture of the product. Compare: Intellectual property right.
(Plasma germinatif)
In agricultural research, a portion of a reproductive cell that contains genetic material.
GMO (or GEO)
Genetically modified organism.
Good agricultural practices
(Bonnes pratiques agricoles)
Synonym: Best management practices.
Grain grade
(Grade de grain)
Category of grain defined on the basis of its quality (visual, for processing, etc.). Forms the basis on which grain is bought and sold in world markets.
Grain Growers of Canada
(Les Producteurs de grains du Canada)
National organization representing the associations of grain and oilseed producers.
Grain Transportation Acts
(Transport du grain, Lois relatives au)
Set of acts permitting the subsidization of grain transportation in the 1980s and 1990s. Includes the Feed Freight Assistance Act, the Western Grain Transportation Act, the Atlantic Region Freight Assistance Act and the Maritime Freight Rates Act. These acts were repealed in 1995.
Green box
(Boîte verte)
In the context of the trade negotiations at the World Trade Organization (WTO), means agriculture support measures considered as not distorting trade. Examples: agricultural research fund, Crop insurance program.
Greencover Canada Program
(Couverture végétale du Canada, Programme de)
Federal program providing financial assistance to property owners wishing to convert ecologically sensitive lands by establishing permanent greencover. Provides technical assistance for improving land management. Implemented in 2004 with a budget of $110 million over five years.
Greenhouse gas
(Gaz à effet de serre)
Gas preventing the heat emitted by the Earth from dissipating into space, thus heating the atmosphere and permitting life on the planet. Includes water vapour, carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrogen oxide (N2O), perfluorocarbons, sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) and fluorinated hydrocarbons. Is produced naturally and by human activity.
Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Program for Canadian Agriculture
(Atténuation des gaz à effet de serre pour le secteur agricole canadien, Programme d’)
Program designed to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by the agriculture and agri-food sector. Consists in determining the farming practices that reduce GHG emissions and communicating them to producers so that they adopt them. Introduced in 2001 for five years and up to $21 million.
Gross Revenue Insurance Program.
Gross Revenue Insurance Program (GRIP)
(Régime d’assurance du revenu brut (RARB))
Income support program introduced in 1991 under the Farm Income Protection Act. Grain, oilseed and special crop producers received payments based on the difference between market income and a target income (determined on the basis of historical returns and an average price). Funded out of contributions from farmers, the federal government and the provinces. Terminated in 1995 for cost reasons and international trade considerations.
Growth hormone
(Hormone de croissance)
Natural substance that stimulates the growth of an organism. On cattle ranches in Canada and the United States, six hormone substances are used to accelerate animal growth: three are naturally present in cattle (estradiol, progesterone and testosterone) and three imitate natural hormone activity (trenbolone acetate, zeranol and melengestrol acetate). The World Trade Organization (WTO) held in 1998 that the European Union’s prohibition on importing beef produced using these hormones was incompatible with WTO rules because it was not based on scientific evidence.
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Acronym for Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point. Internationally recognized production management system for determining the health problems that may appear throughout the food production process and preventing their appearance by monitoring a certain number of critical points. Mandatory in certain types of food processing facilities in Canada.
Prevention or elimination of differences in technical content in standards that have the same purpose, but may vary from one country to another (e.g., food safety standards). Mainly concerns standards that may raise barriers to trade.
Harmonized System
(Système harmonisé)
Short title of the Harmonized Commodity Description and Coding System. International code established by the World Customs Organization. Consists of categories identified by six digits, enabling all countries to classify internationally traded goods in an identical manner (e.g., “0405.10” for butter). Beyond the first six digits, countries may establish distinctions for the purposes of customs duties or other uses (statistics, etc.).
Health of Animals Act
(Santé des animaux, Loi sur la)
Act designed to protect Canadian animals from serious diseases that could restrict trade or pose a threat to human health. Minister responsible: Minister of Agriculture and Agri-Food. Administered by the Canadian Food Inspection Agency. Royal Assent in 1990.
Substance that kills, inhibits growth or prevents germination of plants. Used against weeds in crops. See also: Pesticide.
Herbicide tolerance
(Tolérance aux herbicides)
A plant’s ability to survive the application of a herbicide that would normally destroy it. The term refers to herbicide tolerance in cultivated varieties that have been especially developed to acquire this characteristic. See also: Roundup ready crop variety.
Hopper car
(Wagon trémie)
Kind of freight car used to transport bulk dry materials such as grain. In Canada, grain transportation may require instant capacity of 26,000 to 29,000 hopper cars. The federal government has a fleet of approximately 12,500 hopper cars.
Harmonized System.
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Identity preservation system
(Préservation de l’identité variétale)
Synonym: Segregation system. Process for separating, from other products, crops possessing characteristics of particular quality. Used in seed production to meet the demand of certain processing industries (bakeries, breweries, etc.). Synonym: Variety identity preservation system.
Income support
(Soutien du revenu, programme)
Policy or program enabling a government to maintain farmers’ incomes at a level deemed acceptable. The Canadian Agricultural Income Stabilization Program is an income support program.
Products and services necessary to agricultural production and agri-food processing. Among other things, includes fertilizer, pesticides, veterinary medications and energy used.
In-quota tariff rate
(Taux de droit applicable dans la limite du contingent)
In a tariff quota system, means the import duty, generally low, applied to the volume of goods authorized or determined by the quota.
Substance that kills or affects the development of insects. See also: Pesticide.
Integrated pest management
(Lutte antiparasitaire intégrée)
Approach to crop management. Designed to minimize pest-related problems in an effective and economical manner respectful of human health and the environment. Combines prevention and treatment techniques with biological, agricultural (e.g., seeding depth), physical and chemical (pesticides) means. Reduces dependence on pesticides as the only pest management method.
Intellectual property right
(Droit de propriété intellectuelle)
Legal protection that permits the holder to use, enjoy and dispose of a creation of the mind, such as a scientific discovery. There are a number of recognized types of rights, in particular patents, plant breeders’ rights, trademarks and appellation of origin. Compare: Geographical indication.
Internal Trade Secretariat
(Secrétariat du commerce intérieur)
Independent, non-profit association established in 1995. Provides administrative and operational support to the Ministerial Committee on Internal Trade Responsible for Implementing the Agreement on Internal Trade. Directed by a management council consisting of representatives of the ten provinces, two territories (the Northwest Territories and Yukon), and the federal government.
International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC)
(Convention internationale pour la Protection des Végétaux (CIPV))
International convention that came into force in 1952 and is managed by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). Ensures joint action is taken to prevent the spread of plant pests. Develops international standards for plant pest control measures and distributes information on those likely to be imported. Its standards carry no legal weight, but under the Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures Agreement (SPS), they may be consulted where the World Trade Organization (WTO) must arbitrate trade disputes caused by scientific disagreements.
International Union for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants (UPOV)
(Union internationale pour la protection des obtentions végétales (UPOV)
Intergovernmental organization established by the International Convention for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants signed in 1961. Administers the Convention, the purpose of which is to put in place and promote an effective system for protecting plant varieties. Head office in Geneva, Switzerland.
Integrated pest management.
International Plant Protection Convention.
Food sterilization process. Food is exposed to ionizing radiation to eliminate pathogens and increase length of conservation. Process identical to that used to sterilize medical instruments and beauty products. Differs from irradiation using ultraviolet (UV) light for disinfecting bottled water.
Artificial watering of crops.
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Process whereby soluble substances such as nitrates are transported through the soil by water. Compare: Run-off.
Livestock Feed Assistance Act
(Aide à l’alimentation des animaux de ferme, Loi sur l’)
Act providing assistance to breeders in certain regions of Canada (eastern Canada, British Columbia, Yukon, Northwest Territories and Nunavut) to guarantee the supply of animal feed. The act was not repealed after the Feed Freight Assistance program was cancelled in 1995. No assistance is currently granted under this act. Minister responsible: Minister of Agriculture and Agri-Food. Royal Assent in 1966.
Livestock Tax Deferral Plan
(Plan de report d’impôt pour le bétail)
Section 80.3 of the Income Tax Act allows farmers who sell part of their breeding herd due to drought conditions in designated regions to defer a portion of sale proceeds to the following year.
Living modified organism (LMO)
(Organisme vivant modifié (OVM))
According to the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety, an LMO is an organism (plant, animal or micro-organism) containing genetic material produced or inserted with the aid of modern biotechnology, including genetic engineering. Despite slight differences in the definition, the expressions genetically modified organism and living modified organism are commonly considered synonymous.
Living modified organism.
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Mad cow
(Vache folle)
See: Bovine spongiform encephalopathy.
Mad cow disease
(Maladie de la vache folle)
Synonym: Bovine spongiform encephalopathy.
Market access
(Accès au marché)
In trade negotiations, means the quantity of a product that a country allows to be imported in accordance with its tariff rate quotas.
Marketing board
(Office de commercialisation)
Agency representing producers that manages a marketing plan for the products of its members. There are provincial and national marketing boards for products subject to supply management in Canada. The Canadian Wheat Board is a form of marketing board.
Maximum residue limit
(Limite maximale de résidus)
Highest acceptable concentration of a chemical (pesticide, medication, etc.) in a food for that food to remain marketable or edible without any risk to human health.
Meat and bone meals
(Farine animale)
Products made from the processing (crushing, cooking, dehydration) of slaughterhouse waste and animal carcasses collected from breeders. See also: Feed ban (1997).
Meat Inspection Act
(Inspection des viandes, Loi sur l’)
Act permitting the quality and safety control of meat products imported to or produced in Canada for interprovincial or international sale. Requires accreditation for facilities that process meat and confers authority for defining the standards pertaining to those facilities, animals that are slaughtered there and meat products prepared there. Administered by the Canadian Food Inspection Agency. Minister responsible: Minister of Agriculture and Agri-Food. Royal Assent in 1985.
Medicated feed
(Aliments médicamentés)
Animal feed into which medication has been mixed. Used to prevent or treat disease or to accelerate animal growth. Its use is controlled under the Food and Drugs Act and the Feeds Act.
Methyl bromide
(Bromure de méthyle)
Gas used as a pesticide mainly for fumigating agricultural land, food products and structures such as ship holds. Recognized as a substance that depletes the ozone layer; the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer provides for the elimination of this pesticide in 2005 in industrialized countries and 2015 in developing countries.
Minor use pesticide
(Pesticide à usage limité)
Pesticide necessary for the production of certain crops, but the low sales volume of which in the country does not make it possible to convince a manufacturer to obtain an approval that would permit its sale. Mainly concerns horticultural crops, because of the small area under cultivation in Canada.
Minor Use Program (MUP)
(Pesticides à usage limité, Programme des (PPUL))
Program created in 2003 to improve access to the pesticides necessary to produce certain crops, but the small sales volumes of which do not make it possible to convince a manufacturer to obtain approval for their sale. The purpose of the program is to obtain the data necessary for approval applications for those pesticides.
Molecular farming
(Agriculture moléculaire)
Use of plants, and potentially animals, that have been genetically modified to produce components of therapeutic or industrial value.
Cultivation of a single plant species. May apply to a plot of land, but also to a farm or region. See also: Crop rotation.
Most-favoured nation
(Nation la plus favorisée)
Principle established in the World Trade Organization Agreements requiring countries not to discriminate among their trade partners. Ensures that a benefit granted to one trade partner is also granted to all WTO members. See also: National treatment.
Maximum residue limit.
An economic term meaning that an activity has consequences other than its primary goal. Notion that agriculture plays roles useful to society in addition to producing food and fibres. Those other roles include protecting the environment, maintaining the landscape and preserving a rural fabric. Multifunctionality thus represents all the positive externalities of agriculture.
Minor Use Program.
Genetic improvement technique consisting in modifying the genes of an organism by irradiation or with the aid of chemicals. Widely used to improve cultivated plants. Organisms modified through mutagenesis are generally not considered genetically modified organisms (GMOs).
Toxic substance produced by fungi. Several hundreds of mycotoxins (e.g., aflatoxin) are known to exist. They may be found in agricultural crops and may cause disease in humans or animals that consume foods produced from contaminated crops.
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North American Free Trade Agreement.
National Agri-Environmental Health Analysis and Reporting Program
(Programme national d’analyse et de rapport en matière de santé agroenvironnementale
Internal program of Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada that provides scientific information on agriculture and the environment to support the development of policies and programs and their subsequent evaluation. Implemented in response to work begun in 1993 that led to the first evaluation of the environmental performance of agriculture in Canada, the report of which, published in 2000, was entitled Environmental Sustainability of Canadian Agriculture: Report of the Agri Environmental Indicator Project. A second evaluation was published in 2005.
National Environmental Farm Planning Initiative
(Initiative nationale de planification environnementale à la ferme)
Initiative providing technical assistance for the development of environmental farm plans by farmers (training, etc.). Started up in 2004 and offered in provinces that have signed a contribution agreement with the federal government.
National Farm Products Council (NFPC)
(Conseil national des produits agricoles (CNPA))
Federal agency under the responsibility of the Minister of Agriculture and Agri-Food. Created in 1972 under the Farm Products Agencies Act. Supervises agencies responsible for administering the national and regional marketing plans of products under supply management. Comprises three to nine members appointed by the Governor in Council.
National Farm Stewardship Program
(Gérance agroenvironnementale, Programme national de)
Program created in 2004 as part of the National Environmental Farm Planning Initiative. Its aim is to help implement environmental farm plans by offering technical and financial assistance to encourage producers to adopt the good agricultural practices stated in their plans. Offered in provinces that have signed a contribution agreement with the federal government.
National Farmers Union (NFU)
(Syndicat national des cultivateurs (SNC))
Direct membership farmers’ association. Supports the family farm as a basic unit of agricultural production in Canada and as the most effective and sustainable agricultural model.
National Land and Water Information Service
(Service national d’information sur les terres et les eaux)
Service established in 2005 in cooperation with the agricultural sector, the provinces and territories. Provides farmers with information to support environmentally friendly decision-making regarding land use. Full implementation of the service is scheduled for 2009 at a cost of $100 million.
National treatment
(Traitement national)
In the World Trade Organization (WTO) Agreements, means a country’s obligation to grant other countries the same treatment as that given to its own nationals, productions or services. See also: Most-favoured nation.
National Tripartite Stabilization Program
(Programme tripartite national de stabilisation)
Price support program established in 1986 under the Agricultural Stabilization Act (repealed in 1991). Established a stabilization price for some 12 agricultural products and a fund constituted in equal parts by contributions from producers, the federal government and the provinces. Payments from the fund were made to producers when market price fell below the stabilization price. Stabilization prices gradually disappeared (the last, for sugar beets, was terminated in 1996 1997).
National Water Supply Expansion Program
(Approvisionnement en eau, Programme national d’)
Program providing technical and financial support to farming communities for study or infrastructure projects designed to reduce the risk of future water shortages. Introduced in 2004 for four years. Offered in provinces that have signed a contribution agreement with the federal government.
Net cash income
(Revenu monétaire net)
Measure of farm income at the national level: farm cash receipts less operating expenses. Compare: Net operating income.
Net Income Stabilization Account (NISA)
(Compte de stabilisation du revenu net (CSRN))
Income support program created in 1990 under the Farm Income Protection Act. By annually depositing funds into the stabilization account, a producer received matching government contributions (two-thirds from the federal government, one-third from the provinces). In years of low income, the producer could draw down a portion of the funds set aside. As a result of the cancellation of the program in 2003, it is anticipated that all accounts will be closed after 31 March 2009.
Net operating income
(Revenu net d’exploitation)
Net cash income for the farm as a whole. Compare: Net cash income.
New generation cooperative
(Coopératives de la nouvelle génération)
Term used in western Canada to designate cooperatives that focus their operations on product processing. In the west, cooperatives are traditionally oriented toward the marketing of unprocessed products or the supply of agricultural inputs. The term is used less in eastern Canada, where some cooperatives have engaged in processing for a longer period of time. The Coopérative fédérée in Quebec has been involved in milk processing since the late 1920s.
National Farm Products Council.
Net Income Stabilization Account.
Nitrogen molecule (NO3). Principal source of nitrogen for the higher plants (another being ammonia). In excessive quantity in the soil, leaches into groundwater and makes it unfit for consumption.
Chemical element (N) comprising 79% of the atmosphere, forming the basis of protein synthesis and an essential component of all plant and animal tissues. An essential nutritional element for plants, but a water pollutant in the form of nitrate, and a greenhouse gas in the form of nitrogen oxide.
Non-family farm
(Exploitation non familiale)
Community farm (e.g., a Hutterite colony farm) or farm managed by a corporation (including cooperatives) not belonging to a family.
Nonpoint source pollution
(Pollution diffuse)
Pollution by contaminants from an entire area, arriving in the environment indirectly (carried by rainwater, meltwater, soil erosion, etc.). Groundwater pollution by nitrates of agricultural origin is a form of nonpoint source pollution since no point source is identifiable.
Non-tariff barrier
(Barrière non tarifaire)
Measure other than import duties that limits the entry of products into a country. Examples: Quotas, health regulations.
North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)
(Accord de libre-échange nord-américain (ALENA))
Trade agreement between Canada, the United States and Mexico that came into force in 1994. Defines the rules and procedures governing trade and investment among the three countries. Provides for a dispute settlement system.
North American Free Trade Agreement Act
(Mise en œuvre de l’Accord de libre-échange nord-américain, Loi de)
Act ratifying the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). Royal Assent in 1993.
Novel food
(Aliment nouveau)
Under regulations made pursuant to the Food and Drugs Act, a product that has never been used as a food, or that results from a process never used for foods, or that has been modified through genetic manipulation.
Product manufactured from foods and available in tablet, powder, potion and other forms not usually associated with foods, and consumption of which provides a health benefit (physiological benefit or chronic illness risk reduction). Compare: Functional food.
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Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development.
General term for the parts of a carcass other than muscle tissue (meat). Includes internal organs such as the liver, kidneys, tongue and intestines.
Off-farm income
(Revenu d’appoint extra-agricole)
On a family farm, income from non-farm activity contributed by a member of the family.
World Organisation for Animal Health.
Plants cultivated for their seeds or fruits rich in fat, from which oils for food, energy or industrial uses are extracted. Examples: canola, soy, flax, sunflower.
Operating expenses
(Dépenses d’exploitation)
Expenses incurred to produce agricultural products.
Orderly marketing
(Commercialisation ordonnée)
Way for producers of an agricultural commodity to control the quantity of that product marketed in the country (supply) through provincial or national marketing boards. Synonym: Supply management.
Organic farming
(Agriculture biologique)
Type of agriculture based on strict respect for the natural relations and balances between soil, plants and animals (animals nourish the soil, which nourishes plants), and a prohibition against the use of synthetic chemicals. The term “organic farming” is generally regulated and/or subject to standards defined by the industry (producers, processors, etc.), governments, or both.
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)
(Organisation de coopération et de développement économiques (OCDE))
International organization comprising 30 members, including Canada. Provides a framework for discussion on economic issues and enables member countries to compare their policy experiences. Conducts research and analysis and creates economic measurement instruments that are adopted internationally – in particular, in agriculture, the Producer Subsidy Equivalent (PSE). Head office in Paris, France.
Grazing by animals at a rate higher than the vegetation’s ability to regenerate.
Over-quota tariff rate
(Taux de droit hors contingent)
In a tariff quota system, means the import duty applied to the volume of goods exceeding the quantity authorized by the quota.
Chemical compound consisting of three oxygen atoms (O3). Naturally present in the atmosphere in gas form. In large concentrations in the stratosphere, it partly filters certain light rays (ultraviolet) and maintains life on the surface of the earth. At ground level, ozone concentrations increase as a result of the reaction of certain pollutants to the sun’s rays; may become toxic to health and the environment if present in large quantities. Has a disinfectant property and is used to treat drinking water.
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Packing capacity
(Capacité d’abattage)
Maximum number of animals that can be slaughtered by a slaughterhouse or slaughtering infrastructure of a country over a given period. In 2004, the cattle packing capacity in Canada was estimated at some 85,500 head a week.
Agent (virus, bacterium, fungus, parasite) that causes disease.
Pest Control Products Act
(Produits antiparasitaires, Loi sur les)
Act regulating the use of substances intended to combat pests (pesticides), as well as other substances contained in pest control products, such as formulants, additives and contaminants. Royal Assent in 1969. A new Pest Control Products Act was passed in 2002 (entered into force on 28 June 2006). Minister responsible: Minister of Health. Administered by the Pest Management Regulatory Agency (PMRA).
Pest management product or Pest control product
(Produit de lutte antiparasitaire)
Synonym: Pesticide.
Pest Management Regulatory Agency (PMRA)
(Agence de réglementation de la lutte antiparasitaire (ARLA))
Federal agency that administers the Pest Control Products Act for the Minister of Health. Created in 1995 to group together pesticide regulation authorities previously divided among the ministers of Agriculture and Agri-Food, Health, the Environment and Natural Resources.
Generic term for any substance or chemical preparation for fighting crop and harvest pests. The Pest Management Regulatory Agency (PMRA) approves pesticides in Canada so that their use does not present any unacceptable risk for humans or the environment. Synonym: Pest control product.
Pesticide Residue Compensation Act
(Indemnisation du dommage causé par des pesticides, Loi sur l’)
Act providing for compensation for farmers whose products are contaminated by pesticides, provided those pesticides have been approved in Canada and used in accordance with standards in effect. Minister responsible: Minister of Health. Administered by the Pest Management Regulatory Agency (PMRA). Royal Assent in 1969.
Pesticide resistance
(Résistance aux pesticides)
An organism’s ability to survive the application of normally lethal doses of pesticides. In agents causing plant diseases, this resistance is acquired over several generations. See also: Herbicide tolerance, Roundup ready crop variety.
Pesticide Risk Reduction Program
(Réduction des risques liés aux pesticides, Programme de)
Program introduced in 2003 to reduce the environmental risks posed by the use of pesticides in agriculture. Assists in determining the deficiencies in a range of pest control products offered for priority crops in Canada, and supports research conducted for the development of strategies to reduce risks specific to each pesticide.
Prairie Farm Rehabilitation Administration.
Measurement of the acidity of a milieu (soil, water, etc.). Essential for determining soil characteristics and deciding which agricultural practices should be used.
Phosphorus molecule (PO4). Form of phosphorus in fertilizers. May be found in waterways as a result of run off from agricultural lands. In excessive quantities in waterways, accelerates the growth of algae and aquatic plants, which reduces the amount of oxygen available for aquatic animal species (eutrophication).
Planning and Assessment for Value-Added Enterprises Program
(Planification et d’évaluation pour les entreprises de produits à valeur ajoutée, Programme de)
Program for farmers who are considering expanding or starting up a value-added business. Provides financial assistance to farmers to retain the services of a business planning professional who will assess the project’s feasibility and develop a full business plan. Introduced in 2004 and funded by the federal government and the provinces under bilateral agreements.
Plant Breeders’ Right
(Droit d’obtention végétale)
Form of intellectual property right granted to the selector or breeder of a new plant variety. This protection grants the exclusive right to produce and sell reproductive material for that variety (for a period of up to 18 years in the case of Canada). Differs from a patent.
Plant Breeders’ Rights Act
(Protection des obtentions végétales, Loi sur la)
Act granting the breeders of new plant varieties exclusive rights to the production and sale of the reproductive material of those varieties. Sets the conditions for the protection of plant varieties in Canada. Royal Assent in 1990. Minister responsible: Minister of Agriculture and Agri-Food. Administered by the Canadian Food Inspection Agency.
Plant Protection Act
(Protection des végétaux, Loi sur la)
Act designed to prevent the import, export and spread of plant pests by providing for the means to control and eliminate those pests and measures for importing and exporting plant products. Minister of Agriculture and Agri-Food. Administered by the Canadian Food Inspection Agency. Royal Assent in 1990.
Plant variety
(Obtention végétale, Variété végétale)
Synonym: Cultivar.
Plants with novel traits (PNT)
(Végétaux à caractères nouveaux (VCN))
Variety of plants possessing characteristics that do not yet exist in a stable population of that plant in Canada. Term used by the Canadian Food Inspection Agency to designate plants that must undergo an environmental assessment under the Seeds Regulations. Includes plants produced by genetic engineering and those created through traditional reproduction and mutagenesis.
Pest Management Regulatory Agency.
Plants with novel traits.
Potato wart
(Galle verruqueuse de la pomme de terre)
Disease afflicting potatoes. Caused by a fungus (Synchytrium endobioticum), which can remain dormant in the soil for a number of years. An epidemic may have major economic consequences, including, in particular, lost export markets as a result of closed borders.
Prairie Farm Rehabilitation Act
(Rétablissement agricole des Prairies, Loi sur le)
Act authorizing programs designed to overcome Prairie drought-related disasters and to provide greater economic security by developing agriculture. Introduced following the droughts of the 1930s. Royal Assent in 1935. Administered by the Prairie Farm Rehabilitation Administration (PFRA). Minister responsible: Minister of Agriculture and Agri-Food.
Prairie Farm Rehabilitation Administration (PFRA)
(Administration du rétablissement agricole des Prairies (ARAP))
Federal organization established in 1935, which develops and implements soil and water conservation and development programs under the Prairie Farm Rehabilitation Act. Assists in administering federal-provincial projects designed to promote economic development and diversification in the rural regions of Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta and the Peace River region in British Columbia.
Prairie Grain Advance Payments Act
(Paiements anticipés pour le grain des Prairies, Loi sur les)
Act permitting payments to be made to Prairie producers to store their harvests and to sell them later in the season. Royal Assent in 1957 and still in force, but inoperative. The sections of the Agricultural Marketing Programs Act repealing this act are not in force, but the transitional measures included in the AMPA render it inoperative.
Prairie Grain Roads Program
(Routes utilisées pour le transport du grain des Prairies, Programme des)
Financial assistance program to improve certain municipal roads and provincial secondary highways used to transport grain in the Prairie provinces and in the Peace River region of British Columbia. Program introduced in 2001 for five years. Provides for $175 million in federal funds for the period; cost-sharing agreements have been signed with each province.
Precision farming
(Agriculture de précision)
The use of agricultural practices based on the principle that the conditions of a plot of land (soil, humidity, parasite infestation, etc.) are not identical over its entire area. Makes it possible to adjust the application of agricultural inputs (seed, fertilizer, pesticides) depending on the different conditions existing on the land. Requires the use of new technologies, such as satellite location systems and computers, linked to farm equipment.
Price Pooling Program
(Mise en commun des prix, Programme de)
Program designed to support and promote cooperative marketing of farm products (including processed products). Offers a price guarantee to associations of producers, processors and sales agents marketing their farm products under a cooperative plan. Program existing under the Agricultural Marketing Programs Act.
Price support
(Soutien du prix, programme)
Policy or program enabling a government to increase the price paid to the producer when supply exceeds demand and prices fall below a level deemed too low. The United States and the European Union mainly used this type of policy before turning to income support policies and direct payments to producers in the 1990s.
Private Sector Risk Management Partnerships Program
(Partenariat avec le secteur privé pour la gestion des risques, Programme de)
Program to assist the industry in finding risk management solutions through products and services developed and implemented by the private sector. Announced in 2005.
Producer Subsidy Equivalent (PSE)
(Estimation du soutien aux producteurs (ESP))
Indicator of the level of government support provided to agricultural producers. Measures the monetary value of transfers from consumers and taxpayers as a result of agricultural support policies. May be expressed as a percentage of gross farm receipts. Developed by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD).
Production insurance
Program of insurance in the event of crop failures caused by natural disasters. Created in 2003 to replace the crop insurance program, which had been in effect since the late 1950s. Program costs are shared among the federal government, the provinces and producers.
Pulse Canada
(Pulse Canada)
National organization representing the provincial associations (Prairies and Ontario) of pulse crop producers as well as the processors and exporters of those products.
Pulse crops
(Légumineuses à grain)
Term used by the Canadian Grain Commission to designate peas, lentils, dry beans, chickpeas and fava beans.
Necrotic strain of the potato virus Y (PVY), which attacks potato seedlings. The U.S. border was temporarily closed to Canadian potatoes as a result of the discovery of this virus in New Brunswick and Prince Edward Island in 1990.
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Segregation of animals, agricultural products, buildings or lands where contagious disease has been detected.
Quota (Supply management)
Quantity (weight or volume) of a product that a farmer is entitled to produce under a supply management system (e.g., milk, poultry) or under contract with processors (e.g., tobacco).
Quota (Trade)
Limit on the quantities of a product (generally measured in volume) that may be imported or exported during a given period of time. May be established by country of origin or globally, which makes it possible to allow competition between countries.
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Recombinant bovine somatotropin.
Realized net income
(Revenu net réalisé)
Measure of farm income at the national level. Total of net cash income and cash receipts less depreciation.
Recombinant bovine somatotropin (rBST)
(Somatotropine bovine recombinante (STBr))
Veterinary drug used to increase milk production in cows. Virtually identical to bovine somatotropin, a naturally occurring protein hormone in cows. Produced by a bacterium in which the gene that expresses bovine somatotropin (recombinant DNA technique) has been inserted. Authorized in the United States since 1994. Not authorized in Canada.
Recombinant DNA (rDNA)
(ADN recombinant (ADNr))
Molecule constructed in the laboratory from DNA sequences taken from various sources. Recombinant DNA technology makes it possible to insert a selected piece of DNA (generally a gene) into the genetic material of an organism.
Process recognized by the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) so that animal subpopulations can be declared disease-free and be traded internationally. The animal population is defined on a geographic basis, by, for example, isolating a region where a disease is present so that animals outside that region may continue to be exported. Synonym: Zoning. Compare: Compartmentalization.
Remote sensing
Gathering of information on an object or phenomenon by remote means. In agriculture, remote sensing is used to acquire data on land use, soil characteristics and crops from aerial photographs or satellite pictures.
Butchering of animals unfit for human consumption in order to derive whatever can be used in various industries (skin, bone, horn, fat, meat and bone meals).
Riparian area
(Zone riveraine)
Area bordering on a waterway or other body of water. In an agricultural region, sound management of these areas results in environmental benefits (purification of water, habitat for wild species) and agricultural production benefits (improved soil fertility, feed supply, etc.).
Roundup ready crop variety
(Roundup ready, variété)
Variety of cultivated plant that has been genetically modified to survive applications of Roundup, a herbicide used on all plant species (non-selective). Developed by Monsanto.
Rules of origin
(Règles d’origine)
Acts, regulations and administrative procedures that determine a product’s country of origin. Origin is used to determine whether a shipment is part of a quota, may enjoy preferential tariffs or is subject to an antidumping duty.
Herbivore with four stomach compartments – rumen, reticulum, omasum and abomasum ? where food undergoes the digestive process. Includes cows, sheep, goats, cervidae and camels.
Ruminant Slaughter Equity Assistance
(Aide financière pour les abattoirs de ruminants, Programme d’)
Program created in 2005, providing financial assistance to farmers wishing to invest in a slaughter facility eligible under the program. One of the measures designed to increase ruminant slaughter in Canada (objective announced in 2004 in the Strategy to Reposition Canada’s Livestock Industry following the discovery of a case of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE)).
Ruminant Slaughter Facility Assessment Assistance
(Aide en matière d’évaluation des abattoirs de ruminants, Programme d’)
Program created in 2005 to provide financial assistance to producers to determine the feasibility of establishing a federally registered ruminant slaughter facility. See also Federal Registration. One of the measures designed to increase ruminant slaughter in Canada (objective announced in 2004 in the Strategy to Reposition Canada’s Livestock Industry following the discovery of a case of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE)).
Ruminant Slaughter Loan Loss Reserve Program
(Réserve pour pertes sur prêts relatifs à l’abattage de ruminants, Programme de
Program introduced in 2004 as part of the Strategy to Reposition Canada’s Livestock Industry following the discovery of a case of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). Designed to increase packing capacity across the country by reducing the risk to private lenders who agree to fund slaughterhouse projects. Establishes a $54.6-million reserve for losses on loans obtained to establish or expand small and medium-size ruminant slaughter facilities. Wholly funded by the federal government.
Drainage from soil surface of rainwater and meltwater to water courses. Compare: Leaching.
Rural Dialogue
(Dialogue rural)
Program introduced in 1998 as part of the Canadian Rural Partnership. Organizes workshops, surveys, regional and national conferences to enable rural populations to discuss with governments the roles and challenges involved in improving the quality of life in rural and remote regions. The first three national rural conferences were held in 2000, 2002 and 2004.
Rural Lens
(Lentille rurale)
Program introduced in 1998 under the Canadian Rural Partnership. A federal government instrument for evaluating the impact of federal policies and programs on rural populations.
Rural Secretariat
(Secrétariat rural)
Entity established in 1994 within Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada. Responsible for studying issues and problems concerning the rural regions of Canada and for coordinating rural sector policy development. Coordinates the Canadian Rural Partnership and monitors implementation of Rural Lens.
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Natural process of accumulation of salt in the soil caused and accentuated by a number of natural factors (location of groundwater, topography, geology, etc.) and certain agricultural practices. In high concentrations, salt has a similar effect to that of drought on the growth of plants. Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada has developed a Risk of Soil Salinization Indicator (RSS) to assess changes in the risk of soil salinization on arid Prairie lands.
Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (SPS) Agreement
(Accord sur les mesures sanitaires et phytosanitaires (SPS))
Part of the World Trade Organization Agreements. Came into force in January 1995. Defines the basic rules for securing a healthy food supply, while preventing national food safety and security regulations from being used as a pretext for protecting national producers. Encourages countries to use international standards where they exist, in particular those developed by the Codex Alimentarius, the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC) and the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE).
Spring Credit Advance Program.
(Tremblante du mouton)
Transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) which afflicts sheep and goats. Known since the 18th century and diagnosed for the first time in Canada in 1938. Transmissible by fluids and placental material of infected females; apparently not transmissible to human beings.
Secondary processor
(Transformateur de second cycle)
Synonym: Further processor.
Seeds Act
(Semences, Loi sur les)
Act governing and regulating the sale of seeds in Canada. Permits the establishment of standards on seed quality, labelling, registration of varieties and field trials. Administered by the Canadian Food Inspection Agency. Minister responsible: Minister of Agriculture and Agri-Food. Royal Assent in 1959.
Sensitive product
(Produit sensible)
In the context of trade negotiations of the World Trade Organization (WTO), means a product that will be excluded from the tariff reduction formula and, consequently, for which market access will not be as great as that for other products. In general, a product that is historically highly protected or financially supported in a country. Example: products under supply management in Canada.
Set aside
(Retrait des terres)
Policy or program under which farmers must remove a portion of their cultivable lands from production. This type of program has been used in the United States to conserve soils and in Europe to limit production.
Barrier of trees, bushes or other perennial plants arranged to reduce the effect of wind on soils or crops.
Shelterbelt Enhancement Program
(Mise en valeur des brise-vent, Programme de)
Program created in 2004 for five years to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by increasing the development of shelterbelts on Prairie farmland. Enables the Prairie Farm Rehabilitation Administration to extend its services to enhance the success of shelterbelt plantings while reducing their cost to property owners (supply of material used to fight weeds, specialized mulch-spreading equipment). See also: Shelterbelt Program.
Shelterbelt Program
(Brise-vent dans les Prairies, Programme des)
Permanent program offered by the Prairie Farm Rehabilitation Administration (PFRA) providing for the distribution of tree seedlings for establishing shelterbelts. Trees and shrubs produced by the PFRA are distributed free of charge, but the requester pays transportation, planting and maintenance costs. Also provides technical assistance free of charge. See also: Shelterbelt Enhancement Program.
Coalition founded in 1999 which supports continued supply management in Canada, particularly in the context of trade negotiations at the World Trade Organization (WTO).
Soil organic matter
(Matière organique du sol)
Fraction of the soil that includes plant and animal debris at various stages of decomposition and containing humus (residue of that decomposition). Rich in carbon.
Soybean rust
(Rouille du soja)
Disease affecting soy plants caused by a fungus (Phakopsora pachyrhizi). Of Asian origin. Quickly spread through Africa (1996), South America (2001) and to the United States (2004). May result in yield losses of up to 80%.
Special crops
(Cultures spéciales)
Term used by the Canadian Grain Commission to designate mustard seed, canary seed, sunflower seed, buckwheat, caraway seed, coriander seed, borage seed, safflower, millet and hemp. See also: Pulse crops.
Specified risk material (SRM)
(Matériel à risque spécifié, Matière à risque spécifiée (MRS))
Parts of a carcass likely to contain the agent responsible for bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). These include the brain, bone marrow, eyes, skull, tonsils, spleen, thymus and part of the intestine. Have been removed from the human food chain in Canada since 2003.
Spring Credit Advance Program (SCAP)
(Avance de crédit printanière, Programme d’ (PACP))
Program providing repayment guarantees to producer associations and their lenders for advances paid to producers when crops are planted in the spring. The program pays interest on a portion of the advance. In existence since 2000 under the Agricultural Marketing Programs Act. Wholly funded by the federal government.
See: Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures Agreement.
Specified risk material.
Stabilization, National Tripartite Program
(Stabilisation, Programme tripartite national de)
See: National Tripartite Stabilization Program.
State trading enterprise (STE)
(Entreprise commerciale d’État)
Enterprise that trades in agricultural products and is controlled or supported by a national government. Most STEs have a monopoly on the import or export of products. Example: Canadian Wheat Board.
State trading enterprise.
Summer fallow
(Jachère d’été)
Agricultural practice used mainly in the Prairies, consisting in not cultivating a field for one year. In decline since the 1970s and replaced by continuous cropping.
Supply management
(Gestion de l’offre)
Method enabling producers of an agricultural product, through provincial and national marketing boards, to control the quantity of that product marketed in the country (supply). In Canada, five commodities have a supply management system under federal legislation: milk, broiler chickens, turkeys, consumer eggs and hatching eggs. Synonym: Orderly marketing.
Sustainable agriculture
(Agriculture durable)
Type of agriculture designed to ensure long-term production of food and fibre for future generations by (1) preserving resources and the environment (air, water, soil, biodiversity); (2) ensuring the economic viability of the players; and (3) contributing to the welfare of society.
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Synonym: Import duty.
Tariff escalation
(Progressivité tarifaire)
Tariff escalation occurs when a country sets higher import duties on finished products than on semi-finished products, the lowest duties being levied on raw materials. This practice, protects national processing industries and discourages processing activities in the countries where the raw materials originate.
Tariff rate quota (TRQ)
(Contingent tarifaire (CT))
System of import duties. Imports to a volume limit for a given period of time (quota) are subject to a lower customs duty, imports exceeding that level to a higher tariff. See also: In-quota tariff rate and Over-quota tariff rate. This system is used in Canada, in particular to protect products under supply management.
Terminator technology
(Terminator, technologie)
System (gene inserted through genetic engineering) that produces a plant that can grow to maturity, but produces seeds that will not germinate if replanted. Developed by Delta & Pine Land and the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). See also: Genetic use restriction technologies.
Thunder Bay Grain Handling Operations Act
(Manutention des grains à Thunder Bay, Loi sur la)
Back-to-work legislation ordering the resumption and continuation of grain-handling operations in Thunder Bay, Ontario. Royal Assent in 1991.
Transitional Industry Support Program.
Total net income
(Revenu net total)
Measure of farm income at the national level. Total of realized net income and value of inventory change.
Ability to trace the history, use and location of a product, from raw materials to final use. Used in agri-food to find the sources of health problems or to answer the requests of consumers wishing to know more about the product manufacturing process.
Trade distortion
(Distorsion des échanges)
Situation in which prices and production are greater or less than the levels that would normally prevail in a competitive market. Price support programs create a trade distortion because they promote overproduction. See also: Blue box, Amber box, Green box.
Trade injury
(Préjudice commercial)
Negative effect of a practice of an exporter country on the producers of the importing country. Examples of practices that may result in injury: Dumping, Export subsidies, Price support, embargo, etc.
Trade Acts
(Commerce, Lois générales relatives au)
All federal statutes regulating certain aspects of trade in agricultural products, in particular taxation and import and export authorizations. Including the Customs Act, Customs Tariff, Excise Tax Act, Export and Import Permits Act and the Special Import Measures Act.
Characteristic of an organism the genome of which has been modified by the introduction of a foreign gene and which therefore displays a new characteristic for the individual or species. See also: Genetically modified organism.
Transitional Industry Support Program (TISP)
(Aide transitoire à l’industrie, Programme d’ (PATI))
Ad hoc financial assistance of $930 million for cattle and ruminant breeders, announced in March 2004. Assistance included direct payments per head of eligible cattle totalling $680 million as well as general payments ($250 million) made to cattle and other ruminant breeders based on their previous income. Wholly funded by the federal government.
Transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE)
(Encéphalopathie spongiforme transmissible (EST))
Group of terminal diseases affecting the central nervous system. Associated with the presence of a prion (type of protein) in abnormal form. There is no screening test for these diseases in living animals, or treatment or vaccine. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease is a TSE that affects humans. See also: Chronic wasting disease, Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), Scrapie.
Tariff rate quota.
Transmissible spongiform encephalopathy.
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U.S. Farm Bill
(Farm Bill américain ou loi agricole américaine)
Omnibus bill defining, for a given period (generally from four to six years), farm assistance programs in the United States. Includes programs on income or price supports, trade promotion, food assistance, rural development, environmental conservation and protection, research and education.
International Union for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants.
Uruguay Round
(Cycle d’Uruguay)
Multilateral trade negotiations launched in the context of the GATT at Punta del Este, Uruguay, in September 1986, and completed in Geneva in December 1993. The final Act was signed at Marrakesh, Morocco, in April 1994 and led to the creation of the World Trade Organization (WTO).
User fees
(Frais d’utilisation)
The User Fees Act provides the following definition: “A fee, charge or levy for a product, regulatory process, authorization, permit or licence, facility, or for a service that is provided only by a regulating authority, that is fixed pursuant to the authority of an Act of Parliament and which results in a direct benefit or advantage to the person paying the fee.”
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Value of inventory change
(Valeur de la variation de l’inventaire)
Difference between the value of agricultural products not sold at the end of a year and the value of products not sold at the start of that same year.
Value-added agriculture
(Valeur ajoutée, agriculture à)
Activity that improves the product or production process such that a larger percentage of the final selling price is returned to the farmer. This notion is more restricted than that used in economics, where value-added is a measure of production calculated by subtracting the cost of inputs purchased from the value of the final product.
Vertical integration
(Intégration verticale)
Control by a business (integrator) of a number of stages in the chain of production, from the supply of raw materials to the finished product. For example, a pork-processing business that owns slaughterhouses, hog farms and feed-manufacturing plants. Widespread in the meat industry, in particular.
Veterinary biologics
(Produits vétérinaires biologiques)
Micro-organisms, viruses, serums, toxins, and similar natural or synthetic products used in the prevention, treatment and diagnosis of disease in animals. Includes vaccines and veterinary diagnostic kits. Not to be confused with organic farming products.
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(Bassin versant)
Territory of which the waters feed a given place (a water course, a lake).
Western Grain Transition Payment Program
(Paiements de transition du grain de l’Ouest, Programme des)
$1.6-billion program over two years announced in 1995. Payments were made to land owners to compensate them for the negative impact of cancellation of the Western Grain Transportation Subsidy on the value of farmland. Wholly funded by the federal government.
Western Grain Transition Payments Act
(Paiements de transition du grain de l’Ouest, Loi sur les)
Act authorizing payment to arable land owners in western Canada following cancellation of the Western Grain Transportation Subsidy. Royal Assent in 1995. Minister responsible: Minister of Agriculture and Agri-Food.
Western Grain Transportation Adjustment Fund
(Fonds d’adaptation au transport du grain de l’Ouest)
Program introduced in 1996 to create jobs and accelerate the adjustment process in the Prairie grain industry following cancellation of the Western Grain Transportation Subsidy. Approximately $300 million in federal funds was used to finance a number of initiatives over six years.
Western Grain Transportation Subsidy
(Subvention au transport des grains de l’Ouest)
Subsidy paid to railway companies between 1983 and 1995 under the Western Grain Transportation Act. The federal government paid the difference between the cost to transport the grain and the rate paid by producers to ship their products to Canadian ports, in cases where those products were intended for export. Synonym: Crow Benefit.
World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE)
(Office international des épizooties (OIE))
Intergovernmental organization created in 1924 and responsible for informing national veterinary services about outbreaks of animal diseases in the world. Also develops recommended health standards for international trade in animals and animal products; these standards carry no legal weight but, under the Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures Agreement (SPS), may be consulted when the World Trade Organization (WTO) must arbitrate disputes over scientific disagreements. Head office in Paris, France.
World Trade Organization (WTO)
(Organisation mondiale du commerce (OMC))
International organization responsible for the rules governing international trade. Administers the World Trade Organization Agreements, provides a framework for trade negotiations and resolves trade disputes between countries. Created in 1995 following the Uruguay Round negotiations. Head office in Geneva, Switzerland.
World Trade Organization Agreement Implementation Act
(Mise en œuvre de l’Accord sur l’Organisation mondiale du commerce, Loi de)
Act ratifying the agreement instituting the World Trade Organization (WTO) and the Final Act stating the results of the multilateral trade negotiations of the Uruguay Round, signed at Marrakesh on 15 April 1994. Royal Assent in 1994.
World Trade Organization Agreements
(Accords de l’Organisation mondiale du commerce)
Set of international agreements signed in 1994 following the Uruguay Round. Constitute the international trade rules (negotiated agreements) concerning goods, services and intellectual property. Comprise three main agreements: the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) (for goods), the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) and the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPs Agreement) – and a series of supplementary agreements containing special prescriptions in certain sectors (Agreement on Agriculture, the Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (SPS) Agreement, etc.).
World Trade Organization.
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Zero tillage
(Culture sans travail du sol)
Agricultural practice in which a field is seeded without tillage or mechanical turning of the soil since the previous harvest. Synonym: Direct seeding.
Synonym: Regionalization.
Term meaning diseases mainly affecting animals and transmissible to human beings. Examples: tuberculosis, Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), rabies and brucellosis.
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